HSF 2 Exam 2
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HSF 2 Exam 2

Test your knowledge on the general information about the heart, including pump systems, location, structure, chambers, valves, and more. Explore topics such as the external structure, atria, ventricles, and chordae tendonae.

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@FrugalSet

Questions and Answers

What is the main function of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in muscle cells?

Storing calcium

Which event triggers the release of calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum?

Extracellular calcium influx

What percentage of calcium found in muscle cells comes from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum?

80-90%

Which part of the heart is responsible for atrial depolarization?

<p>SA node</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which phase of the Cardiac Cycle do the ventricles relax?

<p>Diastole</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of Noncontractile cardiac Cells in the heart?

<p>Generating electrical impulses</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the heart is involved in the sequence of excitation following the SA node?

<p>AV bundle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What phase of the Cardiac Cycle involves ventricular ejection?

<p>Systole</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor plays a key role in determining Stroke Volume according to Frank-Starling Law of the heart?

<p>Length of muscle fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What effect does sympathetic control have on the heart's permeability to Na+ and Ca2+?

<p>Increases permeability to Na+ and Ca2+</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is primarily responsible for the fetal adaptation known as Ductus Arteriosus?

<p>Bulbis cordis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What cardiac problem is characterized by multiple myocardial infarctions?

<p>Coronary atherosclerosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in parasympathetic control of heart rate?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does EDV-ESV represent in terms of cardiac physiology?

<p>Stroke Volume</p> Signup and view all the answers

What chamber forms the Bulbis cordis during embryology of the heart?

<p>Ventricle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What serves as the communication link for the heart to transport hormones and proteins?

<p>Intercalated discs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the heart is responsible for the spontaneous depolarization of the heart muscle cells?

<p>Pacemaker cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where can angina pectoris occur in the heart?

<p>Anterior interventricular artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the heart consists of branched and striated cells?

<p>Myocardium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of chordae tendonae in the heart?

<p>Anchoring atrioventricular valves to prevent backflow of blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which artery supplies blood to the anterior part of the heart's septum and walls?

<p>Anterior interventricular artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the serous pericardium layers in protecting the heart?

<p>Providing a lubricated surface to reduce friction during heartbeats</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure in the heart is responsible for preventing the backflow of blood from ventricles to atria?

<p>Chordae tendonae</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the blood vessel is responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation?

<p>Tunica media</p> Signup and view all the answers

In blood vessels, which structure contains collagen fibers and vasa vasorum?

<p>Tunica externa</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of capillaries have larger fenestrations allowing for rapid exchange?

<p>Sinusoid capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of artery is also known as distributing arteries?

<p>Muscular arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of venules in the circulatory system?

<p>Conduct blood away from tissues to the heart</p> Signup and view all the answers

Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) in circulation is directly proportional to which factor?

<p>Blood viscosity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factor determines Blood Flow in the circulatory system?

<p>$∆𝑃$ (Pressure difference)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of blood vessel has valves to prevent backflow of blood?

<p>Veins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor plays a critical role in determining Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)?

<p>Total Peripheral Resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism through which arteriolar vasodilation contributes to regulating blood pressure?

<p>Reduced peripheral resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is associated with long-term regulation of blood pressure?

<p>Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of primary (or essential) Hypertension according to the given text?

<p>Age</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of arterial blood pressure, which factor directly contributes to maintaining homeostasis by decreasing output from the vasomotor center?

<p>Vasodilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which center in the Cardiovascular Center is responsible for inhibiting heart rate?

<p>Cardioinhibitory center</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in relation to blood pressure regulation?

<p>Decreasing blood volume</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of Secondary Hypertension as outlined in the provided text?

<p>Renal Mechanisms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a possible symptom of Orthostatic hypotension?

<p>Dizziness upon standing up</p> Signup and view all the answers

In Circulatory Shock, which type is characterized by an allergic reaction?

<p>Anaphylactic shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process describes the movement of lipid soluble substances across capillaries?

<p>Diffusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure in capillary exchange?

<p>Reabsorption of fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'Coronary' refer to in medical terminology?

<p>Heart</p> Signup and view all the answers

What word describes inflammation of an artery?

<p>Arteritis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the meaning of 'Angina Pectoris' based on its Latin roots?

<p>'Chest pain'</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Embolus' can be distinguished from 'Thrombus' based on:

<p>'Embolus' travels through the bloodstream</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Valvuloplasty' typically involves:

<p>'Surgical repair or replacement of heart valves'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are Peyer’s Patches located?

<p>In the small intestine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the cysterna chyli?

<p>To drain most of the body's lymph</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main role of the thymus gland in the lymphatic system?

<p>Produce T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lymphatic organ serves as a site for lymphocyte proliferation?

<p>Spleen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What differentiates Lymphatic Capillaries from blood capillaries?

<p>Higher permeability</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the lymphatic system, what is the function of Lymphatic Trunks?

<p>Collect lymph from various regions of the body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of MALT in the lymphatic system?

<p>Protect mucosal surfaces from pathogens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the Thoracic Duct in the lymphatic system?

<p>Drain most of the body's lymph into the venous blood supply</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the primary functions of the lymphatic system?

<p>Draining interstitial fluid, transporting dietary lipids, defense against viruses and bacteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the anatomy of lymphatic capillaries.

<p>Blind end vessels, highly permeable, overlapping endothelial cells, anchoring filament</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the functions of lymphatic trunks in the lymphatic system?

<p>Lumbar trunk, intestinal trunk, subclavian trunk, jugular trunk, bronchomediastinal trunk</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the role of the thoracic duct in the lymphatic system.

<p>It drains most of the body's lymph, returning it to the bloodstream.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the primary lymphatic organs and their functions?

<p>Thymus gland (site of T cell maturation), spleen (storage of blood, lymphocyte proliferation)</p> Signup and view all the answers

List the components of MALT in the lymphatic system.

<p>Tonsils, Peyer's Patches, Appendix</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of lymph nodes?

<p>Filtering lymph, containing immune cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the formation and flow of lymph in the lymphatic system.

<p>Formation: 3L/day with proteins, Flow: Returns to venous blood via muscle and respiratory pumps</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the four types of imbalances in blood pressure mentioned in the text?

<p>Hypotension, Orthostatic hypotension, Chronic Hypotension, Acute Hypotension</p> Signup and view all the answers

List the three types of shock under vascular shock.

<p>Anaphylactic shock, Neurogenic shock, Septic shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two movements of molecules mentioned under Capillary Exchange?

<p>Diffusion, Vesicular transport</p> Signup and view all the answers

Identify the two types of pressures mentioned under Capillary Exchange.

<p>Hydrostatic Pressure, Colloid Osmotic Pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'Angina Pectoris' mean based on its Latin roots?

<p>Angina - to choke; Pectoris - of the chest</p> Signup and view all the answers

Define 'Arteritis'.

<p>Inflammation of an artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the difference between Embolus and Thrombus.

<p>Embolus is a moving blood clot; Thrombus is a stationary blood clot</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the meaning of 'Phlebitis'?

<p>Inflammation of a vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in muscle cells?

<p>Storage and release of calcium ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are Peyer’s Patches located in the body?

<p>Intestines (specifically in the ileum)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain how the Frank-Starling Law of the heart is related to the length of muscle fibers.

<p>The Frank-Starling Law states that the force of contraction is directly proportional to the initial length of the muscle fibers before contraction. Therefore, longer muscle fibers (increased preload) lead to a more forceful contraction.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the impact of increased contractility on stroke volume.

<p>Increased contractility results in a stronger force of contraction, leading to an increase in stroke volume.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does sympathetic control influence the heart's permeability to Na+ and Ca2+?

<p>Sympathetic control, through catecholamines acting on β1-adrenergic receptors, increases the permeability of the heart to Na+ and Ca2+ ions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the role of the Bulbis cordis during the embryology of the heart.

<p>The Bulbis cordis is a structure that eventually forms the right ventricle of the heart during embryonic development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What adaptations does the fetal heart undergo to optimize oxygen delivery?

<p>The fetal heart uses adaptations such as the presence of umbilical arteries and vein, the Foramen Ovale, and the Ductus Arteriosus to ensure efficient oxygen delivery.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the clinical manifestations of Congestive Heart Failure?

<p>Congestive Heart Failure can present with symptoms such as coronary atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, multiple myocardial infarctions, and dilated cardiomyopathy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the mechanisms of Tachycardia and Bradycardia.

<p>Tachycardia is characterized by an abnormally fast heart rate, while Bradycardia is characterized by an unusually slow heart rate.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the concept of compliance relate to the cardiac system?

<p>In the context of the heart, compliance refers to its ability to stretch and expand to accommodate blood volume during diastole.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Cardiac Output formula, and how is it calculated?

<p>Cardiac Output (CO) is calculated by multiplying Heart Rate (HR) by Stroke Volume (SV). CO = HR x SV.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Discuss the role of the Endocardial tubes in the embryology of the heart.

<p>The Endocardial tubes give rise to the four chambers of the heart during embryonic development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

The left coronary artery branches into the anterior interventricular artery and the _______ artery.

<p>circumflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

Cardiac myocytes are characterized by being _______ and striated.

<p>branched</p> Signup and view all the answers

The pacemaker cells in the heart are known for their ability to spontaneously depolarize, a process called _______.

<p>autorhythmicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

The fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium (composed of parietal and _______ layers) protect the heart.

<p>visceral</p> Signup and view all the answers

The great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, and small cardiac vein are examples of _______ veins in the heart.

<p>cardiac</p> Signup and view all the answers

Sarcoplasmic reticulum stores ______

<p>calcium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Extracellular calcium triggers the release of calcium from the ______

<p>SR</p> Signup and view all the answers

Slow calcium channels allow for the entry of 10-20% of extracellular ______

<p>calcium</p> Signup and view all the answers

80-90% calcium comes from the ______

<p>SR</p> Signup and view all the answers

Atrial depolarization is part of the ______

<p>Cardiac Cycle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation occurs during the _______ phase of the Cardiac Cycle

<p>diastolic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ volume is the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole

<p>End Diastolic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ law of the heart describes the relationship between preload and stroke volume

<p>Frank-Starling</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ control leads to increased heart rate and permeability to Na+ and Ca2+

<p>Sympathetic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ arteries and vein are part of the fetal heart adaptations

<p>Umbilical</p> Signup and view all the answers

Lymphatic capillaries are highly ________

<p>permeable</p> Signup and view all the answers

The thoracic duct drains most of the ________

<p>body</p> Signup and view all the answers

The thymus gland contains ________ lobes

<p>2</p> Signup and view all the answers

The spleen is a storage site for ________

<p>blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

Peyer's Patches are collections of ________

<p>MALT</p> Signup and view all the answers

The primary function of the white pulp in the spleen is related to ________ proliferation

<p>lymphocyte</p> Signup and view all the answers

The lymph nodes receive lymph through ________ lymph vessels

<p>afferent</p> Signup and view all the answers

The tonsils include Palatine, Lingual, Pharyngeal, and Tubal ________

<p>tonsils</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ are blood vessels that are responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

<p>Arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ law of the heart describes the relationship between preload and stroke volume

<p>Frank-Starling</p> Signup and view all the answers

In capillary exchange, molecules move through capillary walls via _______ and transcytosis.

<p>fenestrations</p> Signup and view all the answers

Vessel radius is _______ proportional to resistance.

<p>indirectly</p> Signup and view all the answers

The _______ receives lymph through lymph vessels

<p>lymph nodes</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ volume is the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole

<p>End-diastolic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ are the smallest blood vessels where gas exchange occurs.

<p>Capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) is associated with resistance in the _______ circulation.

<p>peripheral</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ pressure is pulsatile

<p>Blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ is the main cause of Secondary Hypertension as outlined in the provided text

<p>Heredity</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ Shock results from blood or fluid loss

<p>Hypovolemic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ capillary pressure is responsible for pushing fluids out of the capillaries

<p>Hydrostatic</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ shock includes anaphylactic shock, neurogenic shock, and septic shock

<p>Vascular</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ refers to the process of circular movement in the cardiovascular system

<p>Circulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

_______ shock is characterized by weak pulse and vasoconstriction

<p>Cardiogenic</p> Signup and view all the answers

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