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Body Fluid Balance and Compartments Quiz

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60 Questions

What is the result of Hypernatremia?

Dehydration

Which system converts strong acids and strong bases into weak acids and bases?

Protein buffer system

What causes Metabolic acidosis?

Decrease in bicarbonate

What is the role of the Carbonic acid and bicarbonate buffer system?

Balancing pH in the body

In response to decreased blood pH, what is the effect of respiratory compensation?

Slows respirations - hyperventilation

What characterizes Hypovolemia?

Abnormally low blood volume

What is the main function of ADH in regulating water balance?

Reducing urine output by promoting water reabsorption

Which hormone helps increase sodium and water reabsorption from urine back into the bloodstream?

Aldosterone

Where are the thirst centers responsible for regulating water intake located?

Hypothalamus

Which statement about plasma compared to Interstitial Fluid (IF) is correct?

Plasma carries more proteins and Na ions compared to IF

What is the primary source of water gain in the body?

Ingested liquids and foods

In the context of fluid balance, what does water intoxication refer to?

Excessive intake of water with output not matching intake

What is the primary function of aldosterone in fluid balance regulation?

Increases reabsorption of sodium and water in the kidneys

Where is the highest concentration of fluids in the body found?

Intracellular

What is the main stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in water balance regulation?

Increased blood osmolality

Which hormone plays a role in increasing sodium excretion in urine to help reduce blood pressure and blood volume?

Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)

How do osmoreceptors contribute to the regulation of water balance?

Stimulate ADH release in response to low blood osmolality

Which of the following describes the difference between extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF)?

ICF has a higher phosphate ion concentration than ECF

What is the primary function of the blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the body?

Move fluid from interstitial fluid into capillaries

In the context of acid-base balance, what is the main cause of Respiratory acidosis?

Elevated carbonic acid concentration

What is the primary mechanism through which the Renal compensation system restores blood pH balance?

Absorption of H+ and bicarbonate ions by kidney tubules

Which condition results from an abnormal increase in potassium levels in the blood?

Hyperkalemia

What is the primary role of the Protein buffer system in maintaining pH balance?

Absorbing H+ ions

How does Hypovolemia differ from Hypernatremia in terms of their impact on blood volume?

Hypovolemia leads to abnormally low blood volume while Hypernatremia results in high blood volume.

What is the primary role of the interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (IFCOP) in the body?

Moving fluid from interstitial fluid into capillaries

In the context of acid-base balance, what is the primary cause of Metabolic alkalosis?

Increase in bicarbonate

How does Hyperkalemia differ from Hypovolemia in terms of their impact on blood?

Shifts from ICF to ECF

What is the main function of the phosphate buffer system in maintaining pH balance?

Regulating phosphate ions

How does Respiratory compensation respond to increased blood pH?

Hypoventilation

What characterizes Acidosis in terms of pH level?

$pH < 7.35$

What does water intoxication refer to in the context of fluid balance?

Steady water intake without adequate output resulting in electrolyte imbalance

In the ECF vs. ICF comparison, which statement is correct regarding intracellular fluid?

It has a higher concentration of potassium and phosphate ions

What is the primary role of aldosterone in fluid balance regulation?

Promotes the reabsorption of sodium and water back into the bloodstream

Where are the thirst centers responsible for regulating water intake mainly located?

Hypothalamus

What is the effect of ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone) in fluid balance regulation?

Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in the kidneys, leading to increased sodium excretion in urine

Which statement accurately describes the relationship between plasma and Interstitial Fluid (IF)?

Plasma carries more proteins and sodium but fewer chloride ions compared to IF

What is the primary role of aldosterone in maintaining fluid balance?

Promotes water retention by enhancing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys

Where are osmoreceptors primarily located to regulate water balance?

Hypothalamus

What is the primary effect of ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone) on sodium levels during fluid balance regulation?

Enhances sodium excretion in urine

What is the source of water gain that contributes to fluid balance?

ATP from tissue catabolism

In the ECF vs. ICF comparison, which cation is prominently found in extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Sodium

How does water intoxication impact fluid balance regulation?

Disrupts the equal gain and loss of fluid principle

In the context of acid-base balance, what characterizes Metabolic acidosis?

Decrease in bicarbonate

How does the Renal compensation system respond to an increase in blood pH?

Secretes more H+ and absorbs more bicarbonate ion

Which statement accurately describes Hypovolemia?

Decrease in aldosterone and vigorous diuretic therapy

What is the primary function of the Carbonic acid and bicarbonate buffer system in the body?

Synthesize and reabsorb bicarbonate ion by kidneys

What is the impact of Hypernatremia on sodium levels?

Increase in dietary intake

Which statement accurately describes the role of Aldosterone in fluid balance regulation?

Increases blood volume through water reabsorption

What is the main function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the regulation of water balance?

Increases the reabsorption of sodium and water from the urine back into the bloodstream

What characterizes the difference between plasma and interstitial fluid (IF)?

Plasma carries more proteins than IF

Where are the osmoreceptors primarily located for regulating water balance?

Brain

What is the primary role of aldosterone in fluid balance regulation?

Increases sodium and water reabsorption from urine into the bloodstream

How does water intoxication impact fluid balance regulation?

Causes decreased urine output by increasing water reabsorption

What is the source of water loss that contributes to fluid balance?

Sweating

What is the main cause of Metabolic acidosis?

Decrease in bicarbonate

How does Respiratory acidosis differ from Metabolic acidosis in terms of pH balance?

Both result in decreased pH levels

What is the primary function of ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone) in fluid balance regulation?

Inhibit aldosterone secretion

How does Hypovolemia differ from Edema?

Hypovolemia is low blood volume, while Edema is an abnormal increase in intercellular fluid

What is the primary role of the Carbonic acid and bicarbonate buffer system in the body?

Maintaining blood pH levels

In the context of acid-base balance, what characterizes Alkalosis?

pH greater than 7.35

Test your knowledge on fluid balance, electrolyte balance, acid base balance, ECF, ICF, interstitial fluid, plasma, and the differences between plasma and interstitial fluid, as well as ECF and ICF.

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