Blood and Cardiovascular System
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Blood and Cardiovascular System

Test your knowledge about the functions, composition, and characteristics of blood, as well as the structure and functions of blood cells and the ABO and Rh blood groups.

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@SubstantiveRooster

Questions and Answers

What is the main function of blood?

Transportation of oxygen, nutrients, and hormones; regulation of osmosis, pH, and body temperature; protection against excessive loss and diseases

Why is blood classified as a connective tissue?

Because it consists of formed elements (blood cells) suspended in an extracellular matrix (plasma)

What is the primary function of plasma in the blood?

Transporting nutrients, hormones, and waste products; maintaining blood pressure and pH balance; providing defense against infections

Which component of blood is responsible for transporting oxygen to the tissues?

<p>Red blood cells (erythrocytes)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of white blood cells in the blood?

<p>Defending the body against infections by destroying pathogens and producing antibodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which component of blood is involved in the process of hemostasis?

<p>Platelets</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the basis for ABO and Rh blood group classification?

<p>Presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does hemoglobin primarily bind to for transportation within red blood cells?

<p>Oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organ is primarily responsible for removing metabolic wastes from the bloodstream?

<p>Kidneys</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary component of plasma?

<p>Water</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal count of erythrocytes in blood?

<p>5.5 million cells/mm3</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of antibodies present in the plasma?

<p>Defense against pathogens by binding to foreign antigens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of leukocytes?

<p>Primary cells of the immune system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the basis for blood group classification in the ABO system?

<p>$A$ and $B$ antigens and antibodies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process prevents blood loss and involves vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting?

<p>Hemostasis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of antigens does blood group AB have?

<p>Both type A and type B antigens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for an abnormal excess of red blood cells?

<p>Polycythemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which blood group individuals are called 'Universal recipients'?

<p>Blood group AB individuals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What determines whether a person is Rh-positive or Rh-negative?

<p>Presence of Rh antigens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can be fatal due to agglutination reactions between antigens and antibodies?

<p>Transfusion of incompatible blood types</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of developing Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) in the case of Rh incompatibility?

<p>The mother becomes sensitized to the fetal Rh antigens and produces anti-Rh antibodies, which can cross the placenta into the fetal blood.</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which scenario can a person with Rh+ blood receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems?

<p>During a transfusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

When can antibodies against the Rh antigens develop in an Rh-negative person?

<p>When exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells through a transfusion or during pregnancy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens if an Rh-negative mother is pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus?

<p>Fetal blood leaks through the placenta and mixes with the mother's blood, leading to sensitization of the mother and production of anti-Rh antibodies.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) caused by?

<p>Maternal antibodies crossing placenta and destroying fetal red blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

In later pregnancies, what happens if an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus?

<p>Mother rapidly produces large amounts of anti-Rh antibodies that cross the placenta to the fetus, resulting in HDN</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an intervention to reduce risks for infections?

<p>Proper hand hygiene</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the measures that break each link in the chain of infection?

<p>Control measures</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of infection prevention, what influences a microorganism’s ability to produce an infectious process?

<p>Microorganism's virulence factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which action is part of medical and surgical asepsis?

<p>$1$ inch sterile border around a sterile field</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor in identifying risks for nosocomial and healthcare-associated infections?

<p>Length of hospital stay</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of a measure that breaks the chain of infection?

<p>Proper disposal of contaminated sharps</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the ability of microorganisms to produce disease?

<p>Pathogenicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of infection occurs when the microorganism produces no clinical evidence of disease?

<p>Subclinical infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between medical asepsis and surgical asepsis?

<p>Degree of cleanliness</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the freedom from disease-causing microorganisms?

<p>Asepsis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which major category of microorganisms causes infection in humans by varying in their virulence and severity of diseases they produce?

<p>Bacteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the transmission of infectious agents through direct or indirect contact or as airborne infections?

<p>Communicable diseases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which microorganisms become resident flora, growing and multiplying without causing disease?

<p>Colonization</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term refers to a person or animal reservoir of a specific infectious agent that typically does not show clinical signs of disease?

<p>Carrier</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for an infection resulting directly from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures?

<p>Iatrogenic infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What involves six links: the etiologic agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and host susceptibility?

<p>The chain of infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

ext{What is identified through a blood culture, revealing the presence of microorganisms?}

<pre><code>ext{Bacteremia} </code></pre> Signup and view all the answers

When do chronic infections develop?

<p>Slowly over an extended period</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an example of a common practice of medical asepsis in everyday living?

<p>Washing hands before handling food</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an additional hospital practice of medical asepsis mentioned in the text?

<p>Considering the floor heavily contaminated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the aim of isolation practices mentioned in the text?

<p>Limiting the spread of pathogens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is involved in further isolation practices as per the text?

<p>Disposing of needles and syringes safely at once</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be done with soiled equipment according to hospital practices of medical asepsis?

<p>Keep soiled equipment away from uniforms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor that increases someone's risk of acquiring an infection according to the text?

<p>Young age</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method of transmission involves immediate transfer through touching, biting, kissing, or sexual intercourse?

<p>Direct transmission</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for an individual at risk for infection due to various factors?

<p>Susceptible host</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a person or animal carrying a specific infectious agent without showing clinical symptoms?

<p>Reservoir</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which form of direct transmission occurs within 1 meter and projects droplets onto mucous membranes?

<p>Droplet spread</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of indirect transmission may involve insects as vectors?

<p>Vector-borne</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Blood Composition and Blood Groups

  • Blood is composed of plasma (55% of whole blood) and formed elements including erythrocytes (45% of whole blood), leukocytes, and platelets
  • Plasma is mostly water (over 90%) and contains various solutes including electrolytes and plasma proteins such as albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen
  • Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, with a lifespan of around 120 days and a normal count of 5.5 million cells/mm3 of blood
  • Anemia is a deficiency in red blood cells, while polycythemia is an abnormal excess that can be physiologic (due to altitude) or pathologic (polycythemia vera)
  • Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are the primary cells of the immune system, with five different types including granular and agranular leukocytes
  • Platelets, the smallest blood cells, are involved in the clotting process and have a half-life of 8-12 days, with 30% stored in the spleen
  • Hemostasis is the process that prevents blood loss and involves vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting
  • Blood group classification is based on the ABO system, with different antigens and antibodies determining blood groups A, B, AB, and O
  • The Rh blood group is another important blood group, with people being Rh-positive or Rh-negative depending on the presence of certain Rh antigens
  • Transfusion of incompatible blood types can be fatal due to agglutination reactions between antigens and antibodies
  • Blood group A has type A antigen and anti-B antibodies, blood group B has type B antigen and anti-A antibodies, blood group AB has both antigens, and blood group O has neither antigen
  • People with blood group AB are called "Universal receivers" while people with blood group O are called "Universal donors" due to their ability to receive or give blood to all blood groups

Infectious Disease Transmission and Host Susceptibility

  • Reservoir is a person or animal carrying a specific infectious agent without showing clinical symptoms
  • Portal of exit from reservoir includes coughing, sneezing, saliva, feces, urine, drainage, and open wounds
  • Methods of transmission: direct, indirect (vehicle-borne, vector-borne), and airborne
  • Direct transmission involves immediate transfer through touching, biting, kissing, or sexual intercourse
  • Droplet spread is a form of direct transmission occurring within 1 meter, projecting droplets onto mucous membranes
  • Indirect transmission may be vehicle-borne (fomites) or vector-borne (insects)
  • Airborne transmission involves droplets or dust, with droplet nuclei remaining in the air for long periods
  • Portal of entry occurs through any opening in the body or non-intact skin
  • Susceptible host factors include age, immune suppression treatment, chronic illness, organ transplant, and immune deficiency conditions
  • A susceptible host is any individual at risk for infection
  • A susceptible host can include the very young or old, those receiving immune suppression treatment for cancer, individuals with chronic illness, recipients of organ transplants, and those with immune deficiency conditions
  • A susceptible host is an individual at risk for infection due to various factors

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