Biology II - BIOL 110: Structure of a Kidney

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30 Questions

What is the reason for the high blood pressure in the glomerulus?

The efferent arteriole is much narrower than the afferent arteriole

What percentage of the filtered fluid is reabsorbed back into the blood?

90%

What is the primary function of tubular reabsorption?

To return filtered water and solutes to the blood

What is the approximate amount of fluid filtered by the kidneys per day?

180 liters

What is the composition of the filtered fluid (filtrate)?

Water and small solutes, but no proteins or blood cells

What percentage of the filtered fluid is actually excreted as final urine?

1%

What type of substances are secreted in the tubular secretion process?

Toxic, foreign substances, and waste products

Where does most tubular secretion occur?

Distal tubule

What is a result of the tubular secretion of hydrogen ions?

Regulation of blood pH

What is the function of the permeability characteristics of the loop of Henle?

Increase the concentration of solute and ions in the medulla

What is the result of the increasing hypertonicity of the medullary tissue?

Decrease in water reabsorption and concentration of urine

What is the overall function of the processes involved in the formation of urine?

Maintenance of homeostasis

What is the function of the efferent arteriole?

To leave the glomerular capsule

Which part of the nephron is responsible for connecting the loop of Henle to a collecting duct?

Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

What is the name of the blood vessels that supply the loop of Henle and collecting ducts within the medulla?

Vasa recta

What is the name of the artery that branches to serve nephrons?

Renal artery

What is the function of the peritubular capillaries?

To form a network around the PCT, DCT, and parts of collecting ducts

What is the region where the collecting ducts ultimately reach?

Renal pelvis

What is the primary function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the production of urine?

Increase water reabsorption by inducing aquaporins

What happens to the collecting duct when ADH release is inhibited?

It becomes less permeable to water

What is the consequence of excess water intake on blood pressure?

It increases blood pressure

What happens to the ion concentrations in the blood and body fluids when there is too little water in the body?

They increase

What is the mechanism of water reabsorption in the collecting duct when ADH is present?

Passive diffusion due to hypertonicity of the medulla

What is the outcome of producing concentrated urine?

Conservation of water and decrease in blood pressure

What is the primary function of diuretic drugs?

To reduce blood volume and blood pressure

Which of the following substances is a mild diuretic that inhibits sodium reabsorption?

Caffeine

What is the primary regulator of water balance and most excess solutes in the body?

The kidneys

What is the functional unit of the kidneys?

Nephron

What is the function of the glomerulus in the kidneys?

To filter waste and excess solutes

Which of the following is NOT a part of the urinary system?

The liver

This quiz covers the internal structure of a kidney, including the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, and special blood vessels. Part of the BIOL 110 course for Public Health Track.

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