Biology Branches and Cell Components
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Biology Branches and Cell Components

Explore the different branches of biology, including botany, zoology, and microbiology, and learn about the components of a cell, such as the plasma membrane and nucleus.

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@ExtraordinaryComplex

Questions and Answers

Which branch of biology focuses on the study of interactions between organisms and their environment?

Ecology

What is the primary function of mitochondria in a cell?

Energy production

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of evolution?

Cell division

What is the term for the study of the structure, function, and behavior of cells?

<p>Cell biology</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an example of symbiosis?

<p>Mutualism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process by which genetic information is passed from DNA to RNA?

<p>Transcription</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Biology

Branches of Biology

  • Botany: study of plants
  • Zoology: study of animals
  • Microbiology: study of microorganisms
  • Ecology: study of interactions between organisms and their environment
  • Genetics: study of heredity and variation
  • Molecular Biology: study of biological molecules
  • Biochemistry: study of chemical processes in living organisms

Cell Biology

  • Cell: basic unit of life
    • Components:
      • Plasma membrane
      • Cytoplasm
      • Nucleus
      • Mitochondria
      • Endoplasmic reticulum
      • Ribosomes
  • Cell division:
    • Mitosis: somatic cell division
    • Meiosis: reproductive cell division

Genetics

  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): genetic material
    • Double helix structure
    • Composed of nucleotides (A, C, G, T)
  • Genes: functional units of heredity
    • Expression: transcription and translation
  • Inheritance patterns:
    • Mendel's laws:
      • Law of segregation
      • Law of independent assortment
      • Law of dominance

Evolution

  • Theory of evolution: change in species over time
    • Mechanisms:
      • Mutation
      • Gene flow
      • Genetic drift
      • Natural selection
  • Evidence for evolution:
    • Fossil record
    • Comparative anatomy
    • Molecular biology
    • Biogeography

Ecosystems

  • Levels of organization:
    • Individual
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biosphere
  • Energy flow:
    • Producers (plants, algae)
    • Consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores)
    • Decomposers (bacteria, fungi)
  • Ecological relationships:
    • Predator-prey
    • Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)

Biology

Branches of Biology

  • Botany studies plants
  • Zoology studies animals
  • Microbiology studies microorganisms
  • Ecology studies interactions between organisms and their environment
  • Genetics studies heredity and variation
  • Molecular Biology studies biological molecules
  • Biochemistry studies chemical processes in living organisms

Cell Biology

  • A cell is the basic unit of life
  • Cell components include:
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Ribosomes
  • Cell division occurs through:
    • Mitosis (somatic cell division)
    • Meiosis (reproductive cell division)

Genetics

  • DNA is the genetic material
  • DNA has a double helix structure
  • DNA is composed of nucleotides (A, C, G, T)
  • Genes are functional units of heredity
  • Gene expression involves transcription and translation
  • Inheritance patterns follow:
    • Law of segregation
    • Law of independent assortment
    • Law of dominance

Evolution

  • The theory of evolution states that species change over time
  • Mechanisms of evolution include:
    • Mutation
    • Gene flow
    • Genetic drift
    • Natural selection
  • Evidence for evolution comes from:
    • Fossil record
    • Comparative anatomy
    • Molecular biology
    • Biogeography

Ecosystems

  • Levels of organization in ecosystems are:
    • Individual
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biosphere
  • Energy flow in ecosystems occurs through:
    • Producers (plants, algae)
    • Consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores)
    • Decomposers (bacteria, fungi)
  • Ecological relationships include:
    • Predator-prey
    • Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)

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