BIO1202: Chemical Evolution and Origins of Life
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BIO1202: Chemical Evolution and Origins of Life

This quiz covers the topic of chemical evolution, introduced by Melvin Calvin, which refers to the synthesis of biochemically important molecules from smaller molecules and certain chemical elements, leading to the emergence of the first forms of life.

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@SensationalConnemara2025

Questions and Answers

What is the primary mechanism proposed by Sydney Fox to facilitate the formation of polymers on early Earth?

Splashing of organic monomers onto the hot surface

What characteristic of modern day cells is shared by protobionts?

Semipermeable and excitable membranes

What is the proposed original hereditary molecule in the final stage of chemical evolution?

RNA

What is the result of mutations and errors during RNA replication in prebiotic cells?

<p>Introduction of genetic variation amongst cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of protobionts that distinguishes them from modern living cells?

<p>Inability to reproduce</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of energy for the transformation of molecules into organic molecules in the primitive environment?

<p>Ultraviolet radiation from the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

What caused the impossibility of abiogenesis in the later stages of chemical evolution?

<p>The introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary purpose of the Miller-Urey experiment?

<p>To offer evidence that chemical evolution occurred as described by Oparin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the composition of the primitive atmosphere, according to Oparin's hypothesis?

<p>Hydrogen, ammonia, water vapour, and methane</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the process of transformation of molecules into organic molecules in the primitive environment?

<p>Abiogenesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of the term 'chemical evolution' in the context of the origin of life on Earth?

<p>The synthesis of biochemically important molecules from smaller molecules and certain chemical elements</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following molecules is NOT considered a 'building block' molecule in the context of chemical evolution?

<p>Polysaccharides</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process by which smaller molecules combine to form larger macromolecules in the context of chemical evolution?

<p>Polycondensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the theory that suggests that some of the 'building block' molecules may have originated from outside the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Exogenous delivery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the event that is believed to have marked the beginning of the formation of the universe and ultimately led to the formation of the Earth?

<p>The Big Bang</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for the survival of RNA sequences in the primitive environment?

<p>Their ability to adapt to environmental parameters such as temperature and salt concentration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the critical characteristic of macromolecules that allows for evolution?

<p>Their ability to replicate themselves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of nucleic acids in present-day cells?

<p>Directing the synthesis of new copies of themselves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the outcome of the four stages of chemical evolution?

<p>The development of diverse prokaryotic cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism driving the evolution of protobionts?

<p>Natural selection operating on different RNAs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which smaller molecules combine to form larger macromolecules?

<p>Polycondensation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the formation of biochemically important molecules from smaller molecules and chemical elements?

<p>Chemical evolution</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the theory that suggests some 'building block' molecules may have originated from outside the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>Panspermia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the event that is believed to have marked the beginning of the formation of the universe?

<p>The Big Bang</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is credited with explaining the process of photosynthesis through the 'Calvin cycle'?

<p>Melvin Calvin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for the formation of the ozone layer in the Earth's atmosphere?

<p>The introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere through photosynthesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following molecules is NOT a component of the primitive atmosphere according to Oparin's hypothesis?

<p>Oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of the Abiogenesis process?

<p>To transform molecules into organic molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary outcome of the Miller-Urey experiment?

<p>The evidence for the transformation of molecules into organic molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of the primitive environment that facilitated the Abiogenesis process?

<p>The presence of energy from the sun</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic that distinguishes protobionts from modern cells?

<p>Their inability to reproduce</p> Signup and view all the answers

What would be the most likely outcome of the interaction between polymers in the primordial soup?

<p>The formation of abiotically synthesized polypeptides</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of RNA in the final stage of chemical evolution?

<p>To function as enzymes and replicate genetic information</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of protobionts that is similar to modern cells?

<p>Their semipermeable and excitable membranes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism by which RNA sequences survived in the primitive environment?

<p>Through their ability to function as enzymes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of nucleic acids in present-day cells?

<p>To direct the synthesis of new copies of themselves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the outcome of the four stages of chemical evolution?

<p>The emergence of diverse prokaryotic cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which characteristic of macromolecules is essential for evolution?

<p>Their ability to replicate themselves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between protobionts and modern cells?

<p>Their structure and organization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of nucleic acids in directing the synthesis of new copies of themselves?

<p>They provide a template for synthesis through complementary base pairing</p> Signup and view all the answers

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