Avian Aspergillosis: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prognosis

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40 Questions

Which bird species belongs to the Anseriformes order?

Ducks

What is the order of birds that includes eagles, hawks, falcons, and vultures?

Falconiformes

Which bird species belongs to the Psittaciformes order?

Parrots

In avian medicine, why do birds hide symptoms of illness?

To prevent potential predators from attacking them

What should avian caretakers monitor for signs of ill health in birds?

Weight, demeanor, and activity

What is the significance of a bird looking sick in avian medicine?

The bird is likely extremely sick

Why should avian caretakers be alert for minor changes in birds?

To detect rapid changes in condition due to their rapid metabolic rate

What is the order of birds that includes canaries and finches?

Passeriformes

'Fluffed up' appearance is a sign of ill health in birds. Why do birds fluff up when they are sick?

'Fluffed up' feathers help them maintain body temperature

Why does rapid metabolic rate in birds lead to rapid changes in condition?

Rapid metabolism increases their susceptibility to illness

What is a common presenting sign of wing tip oedema in raptors?

Loss of primary feathers

What is the standard starting protocol for immediate investigation of non-specific signs and advanced lesions in raptors?

Haematology and biochemistry

Which species is marked predisposed to aspergillosis?

Golden Eagle

What is the most common respiratory disease of captive birds?

Aspergillosis

What is the primary cause of wing tip oedema in raptors from warm climates?

Compromised blood supply to the wing tip

What equipment is used to assist in handling falconry birds?

Jesses and hoods

Where is blood sampling typically done from in raptors?

Ulnar vein

What is a common clinical sign of syringeal aspergilloma in birds?

Changes in vocalisation

"Sour crop" is a common condition in birds that affects which part of the body?

Gastrointestinal system

What should be avoided to prevent damage to feathers in raptors?

Injuries from footing

What are the two types of aspergilloma that can be caused by aspergillosis in parrots?

Caudal air sac and lung

Which type of aspergilloma affects the natural depositions of spores in the air sacs, causing no respiratory signs but general malaise and hepatic dysfunction?

Caudal air sac aspergilloma

What are the common health conditions in parrots mentioned in the text?

Beak overgrowth, wing clipping, respiratory compromise, and feather plucking

What can be a cause of beak overgrowth in parrots?

Inappropriate wear and lack of chewing material

How can wing clipping affect parrots?

Prevent normal behavior and reduce contact with hazards, but can also trigger aggression and false confidence in security

What can be a cause of respiratory compromise in parrots?

Various respiratory diseases, tracheal parasitism, cardiovascular issues, and coelomic compression

What is a potential cause of feather plucking in parrots?

Air sacculitis, renal pathology, metabolic bone disease, chronic enteritis, osteoarthritis, angina, preen gland impaction/infection, and secondary to malnutrition

What is a requirement for handling parrots?

Caution as they can be stressed, difficult to examine, and have a beak and sharp nails

Which type of parrot is mentioned as requiring balanced, complex diets and access to sunlight?

African Greys

What is a characteristic associated with parrots?

Intelligent, messy, destructive, often requiring socialization and outdoor activity

What is the most common reason for chicken presentations related to reproductive health?

Failure of a follicle to move into the infundibulum

What is the potential cause of birds being removed due to smoke inhalation?

Displaced aggression or frustration

What are the potential tests for identifying health factors in birds?

Hematology and biochemistry

What is the most common cause of severe disease in poultry after the introduction of new birds?

Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection

What is Marek's Disease caused by?

Oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus

What is the best method for diagnosing egg peritonitis in birds?

Clinical examination and ultrasonography

What is the recommended initial stabilization for birds with egg peritonitis?

Oxygen therapy and subcutaneous fluids

What is a potential preventative measure for managing infectious factors in poultry?

Quarantine and vaccination protocols

What are potential causes of egg peritonitis in birds?

Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection

What are potential clinical signs of egg peritonitis in birds?

Lethargy and anorexia

Study Notes

  • Smoke inhalation can trigger removal of birds due to various behavioral and physiological reasons.
  • Displaced aggression or frustration, stressors in the environment, alteration of routine, and sexual frustration in imprinted birds are potential causes for birds being removed.
  • Macaws display mate preening behavior.
  • No single treatment fits all birds, a comprehensive medical investigation is necessary to identify health factors.
  • Tests include haematology and biochemistry, radiography, chlamydophila serology, and diet and management assessment.
  • Pet poultry species include ex-battery hybrid hens, pedigree chickens, waterfowl, turkey, peafowl, guineafowl, and ratites.
  • Egg peritonitis is a broad term for inflammation of a bird's reproductive tract and coelomic cavity, the most common reason for chicken presentations.
  • Aetiopathogenesis of egg peritonitis can be due to failure of a follicle to move into the infundibulum, external trauma leading to oviduct rupture, or accumulated oviductal damage causing narrowing.
  • Clinical signs of egg peritonitis include none in early disease, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, ascites, and predisposition to other pathogens.
  • Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, radiography (rarely), ultrasonography, and eliminating differentials such as egg binding, aspiration, or clear to orange fluid.
  • Management includes initial stabilization with oxygen therapy and subcutaneous fluids, conservative management with anti-inflammatories, and long-term control through cessation of reproductive activity, euthanasia, salpingectomy, or endocrine manipulation.
  • Preventative measures include optimizing husbandry, quarantine and vaccination protocols, controlling infectious factors, providing shelter, and selecting lower production breeds.
  • Marek's Disease is caused by an oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus, can affect chicks from 12-20 weeks, is neurotrophic and most commonly affects the sciatic nerve causing leg weakness and paralysis.
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a respiratory and reproductive infection caused by a bacterium, often seen after the introduction of new birds, and can lead to severe disease through co-infections.
  • Internal parasites, such as coccidia, are common in poultry and can cause severe disease and reduce productivity.
  • The most pathogenic species of coccidia are Eimeria necatrix and E. tenella.

Test your knowledge on avian aspergillosis, a common respiratory fungal infection in birds caused by Aspergillus species. Learn about the symptoms, treatment options, and prognosis for affected birds.

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