Arsenic Toxicity Symptoms Quiz
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Arsenic Toxicity Symptoms Quiz

Test your knowledge on the symptoms of acute and chronic arsenic (As) toxicity. From hematemesis and garlic-like breath to numbness in hands and feet, this quiz covers a range of manifestations associated with arsenic poisoning.

Created by
@AdjustableMagic

Questions and Answers

What is the mechanism behind lead anemia in cases of moderate lead exposure?

Decreased heme synthesis

Which enzyme is negatively impacted by lead toxicity, affecting heme synthesis?

Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD)

What are the markers of lead toxicity associated with the haematologic effects?

Increased ALA and enhanced ALAD activity

In young children with blood lead concentration exceeding 5mg/dL, what are the observed effects according to the text?

<p>Poor postural balance and decreased cognition</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some of the behavioral symptoms observed in adults with blood lead concentration between 30 and 100mg/dL?

<p>Anorexia and arthralgia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which age group is more likely to experience decreased learning, cognition, and IQ due to lead toxicity?

<p>Young children with blood concentration exceeding 5mg/dL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common symptom of arsenic chronic toxicity?

<p>Numbness in hand and feet</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which antidote is mentioned as ineffective in arsenic chronic toxicities due to the metal's distribution to tissues?

<p>Metal chelators</p> Signup and view all the answers

What symptom is associated with acute cadmium toxicity?

<p>Local respiratory irritation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organ is noted as the most cadmium-sensitive in cases of chronic toxicity?

<p>Kidney</p> Signup and view all the answers

What rare disease is associated with cadmium toxicity in Japan?

<p>Itai-Itai disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What symptom is not typically associated with arsenic chronic toxicity?

<p>Black foot disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

In chronic cadmium toxicity, what condition may affect the bones?

<p>Osteomalacia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Arsine gas exposure can lead to what acute condition?

<p>Hematemesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Heavy Metal Toxicity

  • Heavy metal toxicity is a major concern, as metals are not degradable and can form poisonous soluble compounds.
  • Sources of heavy metal toxicity include mining, industry, agriculture, and occupation.

Lead (Pb) Toxicity

  • Sources of lead toxicity include:
    • Batteries
    • Glass, plastics, and ceramics
    • Lead-based paints
    • Combustion of leaded gasoline
    • Metal alloys
  • Environmental effects of lead include:
    • Water pollution
    • Air and soil pollution
  • Forms of lead compounds:
    • Inorganic lead
    • Organo-lead compounds
  • Toxicokinetics:
    • Inorganic lead: not readily excreted, accumulates in blood, bone, and brain
    • Organic lead: volatile, lipid soluble, and readily absorbed through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
  • GIT effects:
    • Moderate exposure: constipation and loss of appetite
    • High exposure: lead colic, characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
  • Oral effects:
    • High exposure: gingival lead lines (Burton's lines)
  • Bone effects:
    • Chronic exposure: lead replaces calcium and accumulates in bones
  • Haematological effects:
    • Moderate exposure: "lead anemia"
  • CNS effects:
    • Acute exposure: encephalopathy, neurocognitive deficits, tremors, convulsions, mental retardation, and death
    • Chronic exposure: decreased learning, cognition, and IQ, hearing impairment, poor postural balance, and behavioral symptoms
  • Diagnosis:
    • Symptoms: according to age and dose
    • Lab tests: blood lead level, aminolevulinic acid in urine, and reduction of active blood ALAD enzyme
  • Management:
    • Supportive care: treatment of seizures, controlling cerebral oedema
    • Antidotes: metal chelators (succimer, disodium calcium EDTA, British Anti-lewisite, and dimercaprol)

Arsenic (As) Toxicity

  • Sources:
    • Metal hardening
    • Insecticides, rodenticides, and fungicides
    • Glass industry
    • Pigments industry
    • Water and food pollutant
  • Forms:
    • Organic: pentavalent arsenate (As5+)
    • Inorganic: trivalent arsenite (As3+), arsine gas (AsH3), and pentavalent arsenate (As5+)
  • Symptoms of acute toxicity:
    • Hematemesis and abdominal pain
    • Rice-water diarrhea
    • Garlic-like breath
    • Thirst and metallic taste
    • Contact dermatitis
    • Arsine gas exposure: acute hemolytic anemia and striking chills
  • Symptoms of chronic toxicity:
    • Stomach pain and diarrhea
    • Numbness in hand and feet
    • Partial paralysis and blindness
    • Chronic lung disease
    • Melanosis and keratosis (palms and feet), and black foot disease
  • Management:
    • Supportive care: exchange transfusion, vigorous hydration, and hemodialysis (if renal failure occurs)
    • Antidotes: metal chelators (no benefit in chronic toxicities)

Cadmium (Cd) Toxicity

  • Sources:
    • Silver mining
    • Industrial effluent
    • Household cleansers
  • Acute vs. chronic cadmium toxicity:
    • Acute: GI effects (oral) and local respiratory irritation (inhalation)
    • Chronic:
      • Kidney: most cadmium-sensitive organ (atrophy)
      • Lungs: emphysema
      • CVS: hypertension
      • Bones: osteomalacia (bone softening)
      • Testes: necrosis
      • Itai-Itai disease
  • Itai-Itai disease:
    • Cause: contamination of river water by cadmium from silver mining companies
    • Effects: "It hurts-it hurts"

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