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Anatomy of the Heart Wall

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33 Questions

What happens to heart rate when the sympathetic nervous system (SyNS) is increased?

It increases

Which hormone increases heart rate and contractility?

All of the above

What is the term for the degree of stretch on the heart before it contracts?

Preload

What is affected by the duration of ventricular diastole and venous return?

End diastolic volume

What is the result of increased parasympathetic nervous system (PaNS) activity?

Decreased heart rate

What is the Frank-Starling law related to?

The relationship between preload and stroke volume

What is the function of the pericardial fluid in the pericardial cavity?

To reduce friction between the heart wall and pericardium

What is the layer of the heart wall that is in contact with the pericardial cavity?

Epicardium

What happens when the ventricles contract?

The AV valves close, and the pulmonary and aortic valves open

What is the main function of the myocardium?

To contract and pump blood through the heart

What is the function of the papillary muscles?

To prevent the AV valves from being forced open in the opposite direction

What is the interatrial septum?

A dividing wall between the two atria

What is the heart sound 'lub' produced by?

The blood turbulence associated with the closing of the AV valves

What is the function of the right side of the heart?

To pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs

What is the function of the right atrioventricular (AV) valve?

To allow blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle

What is the endothelium?

A layer of simple squamous epithelium

What is the function of the coronary circulation?

To provide oxygenated blood to the heart muscle

What is the sequence of the conduction system in the heart?

SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, ventricles

What is the main function of capillaries in the exchange vessels?

To exchange substances between the blood and the tissues

What is the structure of blood vessel walls, except capillaries?

A 3-layered arrangement of tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa

What is the term for a decrease in lumen size?

Vasoconstriction

What is the function of the tunica intima layer?

To provide a simple squamous epithelium and a basement membrane

What is the term for the process of venules merging to form progressively larger veins?

Venous convergence

What is the primary function of hemoglobin in red blood cells?

To carry oxygen

What is the term for the formation of red blood cells?

Hemopoiesis

What is the function of neutrophils in the immune system?

To fight off bacterial infections

What is the term for an increased white blood cell count?

Leukocytosis

What is the term for the average blood pressure in the arteries?

Mean arterial pressure

What is the primary function of the lymphatic system?

To drain excess interstitial fluid

What is the term for the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system?

Lymph

What is the function of lymph nodes in the lymphatic system?

To filter out foreign substances

What is the term for the two main lymphatic ducts?

Thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct

What is the term for the process by which lymph flows through the lymphatic system?

Lymphatic flow

Learn about the three layers of the heart wall, including the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium, and their functions in the heart's structure and function.

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