Forensic Psychology - Week 1 quiz
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Forensic Psychology - Week 1 quiz

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Questions and Answers

Who is known for their work in the field of forensic psychology?

Hugo Münsterberg

Which influential textbook was co-authored by Dr. Bartol?

Both of the above

What did Hugo Münsterberg propose as a means to detect deception?

Polygraph testing

What did James McKeen Cattell conduct experiments on in the late 19th century?

<p>Eyewitness testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Münsterberg's book 'On the Witness Stand' explore?

<p>The fallibility of eyewitness testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is Gene Hackman?

<p>An actor</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Dr. Curt Bartol's contribution to forensic psychology?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the foundation of the concept of mens rea?

<p>The intention behind the act</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the maxim 'actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea' mean?

<p>An act does not make a person guilty unless the mind is also guilty</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of a jury consultant in the movie Runaway Jury?

<p>To influence the jury's decision</p> Signup and view all the answers

James McKeen Cattell's research on witness recall found that their responses were often flawed or inaccurate. This suggests that witness recall is influenced by which factor?

<p>Misleading information</p> Signup and view all the answers

Based on the text, Cattell's early studies on eyewitness testimony and suggestibility contributed to which understanding?

<p>Witness testimony can be fallible</p> Signup and view all the answers

Cattell's research on eyewitness testimony recognized the role of emotional factors in eyewitness accounts. This suggests that the accuracy of witness testimony can be affected by what?

<p>Emotional arousal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Based on the text, Cattell's experiments in eyewitness testimony helped establish the use of research paradigms still commonly used today. This approach involves exposing participants to staged events and studying their recall and recognition of the information. What is this approach called?

<p>Reality experiment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Cattell's research on witness recall shed light on the vulnerability of witness recall to suggestive questioning. This suggests that witness recall can be influenced by what?

<p>Questioning techniques</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a primary focus of clinical forensic psychologists?

<p>Assessing and treating mental health issues related to the law</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the educational requirement for becoming a licensed clinical forensic psychologist in the United States?

<p>Doctoral degree in psychology or a related discipline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of forensic psychiatrists?

<p>Specializing in the interface of mental health and the legal field</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the licensing process for clinical forensic psychologists in the United States?

<p>Writing a standardized exam and undergoing supervised practice</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of forensic psychology?

<p>Dealing with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of clinical forensic psychologists in divorce and child custody cases?

<p>Mediating divorce and child custody disputes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of forensic psychologists in personnel selection?

<p>Assessing and selecting individuals for law enforcement agencies</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which field of forensic science involves examining the remains of deceased individuals to determine how they might have died and to establish facts about them, such as their gender, age, and appearance?

<p>Forensic anthropology</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which field of forensic science uses art to aid in the identification, apprehension, and conviction of offenders?

<p>Forensic art</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which field of forensic science is concerned with how insects can assist with criminal investigations, such as determining when someone died based on an analysis of insect presence/development on a decomposing body?

<p>Forensic entomology</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which field of forensic science studies the dental aspects of criminal activity, such as identifying deceased individuals through an examination of dental records or determining whether bite marks were made by an adult or child?

<p>Forensic odontology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of a forensic podiatrist in police investigations and court proceedings?

<p>To assist with analyzing footprints found at crime scenes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of experimental forensic psychologists?

<p>Studying the effectiveness of risk assessment strategies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the research issues that experimental forensic psychologists are interested in?

<p>Determining factors that influence jury decision making</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of forensic pathologists?

<p>Determining how deceased individuals might have died</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which role for forensic psychologists is the least common but still important?

<p>Legal scholar</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of forensic psychology?

<p>Providing therapy to individuals involved in legal cases</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which institution played a significant role in the development of the role of legal scholar in forensic psychology?

<p>University of Nebraska</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the program at the University of Nebraska specialize in?

<p>Training psychologically informed legal scholars</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is forensic psychology considered challenging?

<p>Due to the diverse roles and approaches within the field</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted some of the first North American experiments on eyewitness testimony?

<p>James McKeen Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which psychologist demonstrated that asking children to report everything they saw resulted in the most accurate answers?

<p>Alfred Binet</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted studies examining the suggestibility of witnesses and developed the 'reality experiment' research paradigm?

<p>William Stern</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Alfred Binet's study on children's eyewitness testimony reveal about the impact of questioning techniques?

<p>Asking children to report everything they saw resulted in the most accurate answers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who was one of the major powerhouses of psychology in North America and conducted early experiments on eyewitness testimony?

<p>James McKeen Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a primary relationship between psychology and the law proposed by Craig Haney?

<p>Psychology for the law</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who are some early pioneers in the field of forensic psychology?

<p>Hugo Münsterberg and William James</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which landmark legal case involved a psychological assessment of the defendant's mental state and helped establish the credibility of forensic psychology in the courtroom?

<p>The trial of Harry K. Thaw</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology (AAFP)?

<p>To foster research, collaboration, and ethical practices within forensic psychology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some areas of legal practice that forensic psychology has expanded its scope to encompass?

<p>Providing expert testimony on mental competency, assessing the risk of violence or reoffending, evaluating child custody disputes, conducting forensic assessments in correctional settings, and contributing to the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a landmark legal case that helped establish the credibility and importance of forensic psychology in the courtroom?

<p>The creation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in the 1940s</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted some of the first experiments on the psychology of testimony in North America?

<p>William James</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of forensic psychology?

<p>The application of psychology to legal contexts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the functions of an expert witness in court?

<p>To provide the court with information that assists them in understanding a particular issue</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court lay out specific criteria for determining when scientific evidence can be admitted?

<p>Daubert V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the topics that forensic psychologists testify about in court?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which role for forensic psychologists is the least common but still important?

<p>Legal scholar</p> Signup and view all the answers

What impact did academic institutions in the United States have on the development of the role of legal scholar in forensic psychology?

<p>They played a major role</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the joint program in psychology and law at the University of Nebraska specialize in?

<p>Training legal scholars</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a function of an expert witness in court?

<p>To provide information that helps the court understand a particular issue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key requirement for expert witnesses' opinions and inferences?

<p>They must be within the limits of their areas of expertise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an additional requirement for expert witness testimony to be admissible in court?

<p>It must be deemed reliable and helpful to the court</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes expert witnesses from other witnesses in court?

<p>Their expertise and clarity on the issue</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do expert witnesses typically acquire their areas of expertise?

<p>Through specialized training and expertise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of expert witnesses in court?

<p>To provide information that helps the court understand a particular issue</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory of crime proposes that an individual's body build is linked to their temperament and is a significant factor in criminal behavior?

<p>Sheldon's constitutional theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Sheldon's constitutional theory, which body build is associated with a higher likelihood of becoming involved in crime?

<p>Mesomorphs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory of crime proposes that chromosomal irregularity is linked to criminal behavior?

<p>Jacobs and her colleagues' chromosomal theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Jacobs and her colleagues' chromosomal theory, what is the proposed link between chromosomal irregularity and criminal behavior?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gender is more likely to possess two Y chromosomes according to Jacobs and her colleagues' chromosomal theory?

<p>Males</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Sheldon's constitutional theory, which body build is associated with introverted behavior?

<p>Ectomorphs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory of crime proposes that crime is largely a product of an individual's body build, or somatotype?

<p>Brunton and McClemont's somatotype theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Mark and Ervin's dyscontrol theory, lesions in the temporal lobe and limbic system can lead to a 'dyscontrol syndrome.' What are some symptoms of this syndrome?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Merton's strain theory, why do some individuals turn to crime?

<p>They have limited access to legitimate means for achieving success</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Sutherland's differential association theory, how is criminal behavior learned?

<p>Through exposure to values that are favorable to violations of the law</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Becker's labelling theory, what is the process that leads to an individual being labeled as a criminal?

<p>The individual's social interactions lead to the label</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation, what problems can arise from early separation from a mother?

<p>Antisocial behavior patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Eysenck's biosocial theory of crime, which individuals are more likely to have strong antisocial inclinations?

<p>Extraverts and neurotics</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime, what explains an individual's propensity to commit crimes?

<p>Low self-control and criminal opportunities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of forensic psychology?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is one of the inherent differences between psychology and law?

<p>Psychology is cautious in accepting something as true, while law is more lenient.</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the nature of law?

<p>The law operates on a case-by-case basis.</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the epistemology of psychology?

<p>Psychologists assume that it is possible to uncover hidden truths through experiments.</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Daubert criteria, scientific evidence is considered valid if it meets which of the following criteria?

<p>The research has been peer reviewed</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the case of New Jersey v. Fortin, why was Hazelwood's testimony initially admitted by the trial court judge?

<p>Because the crimes were highly similar in terms of behavior and motivation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the basis for the appellate court's decision to reverse the admission of Hazelwood's testimony in the case of New Jersey v. Fortin?

<p>Because linkage analysis involves the application of behavioral science</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which case established the 'general acceptance test' as a criterion for admitting expert testimony in court?

<p>Frye v. United States</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main criticism of the 'general acceptance test' for admitting expert testimony in court?

<p>The vagueness of terms such as 'general acceptance' and 'the particular field in which it belongs'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of forensic psychologists in assisting the courts with their decisions?

<p>To conduct research that will increase understanding of the criteria the courts use for accepting expert testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the evaluation of Daubert criteria, what did the appellate court conclude about Hazelwood's linkage analysis?

<p>It was not sufficiently reliable and valid</p> Signup and view all the answers

In 2000, what did the Supreme Court of New Jersey do in relation to the appellate court's decision on Hazelwood's linkage analysis?

<p>They agreed with the appellate court's decision</p> Signup and view all the answers

What additional problem with Hazelwood's linkage analysis did the Supreme Court of New Jersey point out?

<p>Lack of peer-reviewed research in the area of linkage analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the court case mentioned in the text that involved the evaluation of Daubert criteria?

<p>New Jersey v. Fortin, 2000</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the Daubert criteria?

<p>To determine the admissibility of scientific evidence in court</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the appellate court conclude about the reliability of Hazelwood's linkage analysis?

<p>It was not sufficiently reliable</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which court case established the 'general acceptance test' as a criterion for the admissibility of expert testimony in the United States?

<p>Frye v. United States</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why has the 'general acceptance test' criterion been heavily criticized?

<p>It is vague and lacks specific guidelines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of the research conducted by forensic psychologists in relation to expert testimony?

<p>To assist the courts in making informed decisions</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Daubert criteria, scientific evidence is considered valid if it meets which of the following criteria?

<p>The research has been peer reviewed</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main criticism of the 'general acceptance test' for admitting expert testimony in court?

<p>It may exclude valid scientific evidence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Alfred Binet's study on children's eyewitness testimony reveal about the impact of questioning techniques?

<p>Leading questions can significantly influence children's eyewitness testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Hess (1987, 1999), psychology and law differ along at least seven different dimensions. Which of the following is NOT one of these dimensions?

<p>Ontology</p> Signup and view all the answers

In psychology, knowledge gain is accomplished through cumulative research. In the law, knowledge comes through legal precedent, logical thinking, and case law. This is an example of the difference in which dimension between psychology and law?

<p>Knowledge</p> Signup and view all the answers

Psychologists assume that it is possible to uncover hidden truths if the appropriate experiments are conducted. Truth in the law, on the other hand, is defined subjectively and is based on who can provide the most convincing story of what really happened. This is an example of the difference in which dimension between psychology and law?

<p>Epistemology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of an expert witness in court?

<p>To testify about their opinions based on their special knowledge or expertise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of clinical forensic psychologists?

<p>Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals involved in the criminal and civil justice systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do experimental forensic psychologists primarily study?

<p>The impact of memory and perception on eyewitness testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of forensic psychiatry?

<p>Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals involved in the criminal and civil justice systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which branch of psychology involves the application of psychological knowledge and principles within the legal system?

<p>Forensic Psychology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the criteria for the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony according to the Daubert Criteria?

<p>The methodology behind the testimony must be scientifically valid and properly applied to the facts in issue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is forensic psychology?

<p>The understanding and production of psychological knowledge that is applicable to issues of importance to the criminal and civil justice systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two main debates about behavior in psychology?

<p>Nature versus nurture and free will versus determinism.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which legal principles and issues are particularly important for the forensic psychologist?

<p>Issues of importance to the criminal and civil justice systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Define mens rea and actus reus.

<p>Mental state and guilty act.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the implications of mens rea and actus reus for premeditation and impulse?

<p>Mental state and guilty act.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do beliefs about personality shape beliefs about crime?

<p>By shaping beliefs about nature versus nurture and free will versus determinism.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of forensic psychology?

<p>The understanding and production of psychological knowledge that is applicable to issues of importance to the criminal and civil justice systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of clinical forensic psychologists in divorce and child custody cases?

<p>To provide expert testimony and evaluations related to divorce and child custody cases.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of a jury consultant in the legal system?

<p>To assist with jury selection and trial strategy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How has the field of forensic psychology developed over time?

<p>By integrating psychological knowledge with issues of importance to the criminal and civil justice systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term refers to the settlement of a dispute between two parties, where one of the parties perceives that they have been harmed?

<p>Civil cases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the legal principle of following precedents in deciding a case?

<p>Stare decisis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Latin term for 'Guilty Mind' in criminal law?

<p>Mens rea</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which debate in psychology revolves around the issue of how people acquire their behaviors and mental processes?

<p>Nature/nurture</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which philosophical approach suggests that the mind controls the body?

<p>Emergence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is law defined as?

<p>The rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term refers to someone's internal state of mind or intentions at the time of the crime?

<p>Mens rea</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does actus reus refer to?

<p>Someone's external conduct</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two main aspects that form the core of American mens rea law?

<p>Bad intentions and extreme negligence</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a legal principle or issue that is particularly important for forensic psychologists?

<p>Mens rea versus actus reus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of the nature versus nurture debate in psychology?

<p>Whether our behavior is the result of inherited traits or learned experiences</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of the free will versus determinism debate in psychology?

<p>Whether our actions are determined by factors beyond our control or if we exercise free will in our behaviors</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do beliefs about personality shape beliefs about crime?

<p>Beliefs about personality significantly shape beliefs about crime as personality traits are often seen as predictors of criminal behavior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of forensic psychologists in assessing criminal cases?

<p>Assessing a defendant's mental state</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it important for forensic psychologists to understand appellate decisions?

<p>Appellate decisions may set precedents that impact their work</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term refers to the internal state of mind that greatly influences legal proceedings in criminal law?

<p>Mens rea</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Latin term 'actus reus' mean?

<p>Guilty Act</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the legal principle that states future court decisions should follow the example set by prior decisions?

<p>Stare decisis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of cases involve the settlement of a dispute between two parties, where one party perceives that they have been harmed?

<p>Civil cases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of decisions are made by a higher court, usually regarding a claim that an individual's constitutional rights have been infringed upon during a lower court hearing?

<p>Appellate decisions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following debates in psychology revolves around the issue of whether our behaviors and mental processes are a product of our choice or the unavoidable result of precursors?

<p>Free will/determinism</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, which of the following philosophical approaches suggests that the mind controls the body?

<p>Emergence</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, which of the following philosophical approaches suggests that the mind and body causally affect each other?

<p>Interactionism</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, which of the following philosophical approaches suggests that the mind and body are not causally related?

<p>Psychophysical parallelism</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is law defined as?

<p>The rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of case requires a forensic psychologist to assess a defendant's mental state, evaluate a witness's credibility, or advise on issues like sentencing and rehabilitation?

<p>Criminal case</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which century saw the development of Waundt's laboratory at Leipzig, which played a role in the origins of modern psychology?

<p>18th century</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the mental state necessary to commit a crime?

<p>Mens rea</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two main debates about behavior in psychology?

<p>Nature versus nurture and free will versus determinism</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do beliefs about personality shape beliefs about crime?

<p>Personality traits are often seen as predictors of criminal behavior</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, mens rea refers to someone's internal state of mind or intentions at the time of the crime. What does actus reus refer to?

<p>Someone's external conduct</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the relationship between actus reus and mens rea in criminal law?

<p>They are both fundamental to criminal law</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what are the two main aspects of mens rea in American law?

<p>Bad intentions and extreme negligence</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the difference between civil negligence and criminal negligence?

<p>The severity of negligence and intent behind the actions</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the role of mens rea in determining criminal charges?

<p>Mens rea plays a significant role in determining criminal charges</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which century saw the development of systematic criminology?

<p>17th century</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should forensic psychologists be aware of as they may set precedents that impact their work?

<p>Appellate decisions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which century saw the massive expansion of academic psychology and psychological practice after WW2?

<p>20th century</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Influential Figures in Forensic Psychology

  • Dr. Bartol is a prominent figure in forensic psychology and co-authored a influential textbook in the field.
  • Hugo Münsterberg proposed the use of lie detectors to detect deception.
  • James McKeen Cattell conducted experiments on eyewitness testimony in the late 19th century.
  • Dr. Curt Bartol is a renowned expert in forensic psychology.

Eyewitness Testimony

  • James McKeen Cattell's research on witness recall found that their responses were often flawed or inaccurate.
  • Cattell's research recognized the role of emotional factors in eyewitness accounts.
  • Witness recall can be influenced by suggestive questioning and emotional factors.
  • Cattell's experiments on eyewitness testimony helped establish the use of research paradigms still commonly used today.

Forensic Psychology

  • Forensic psychology applies psychological principles to aid in the investigation and prosecution of crimes.
  • Clinical forensic psychologists assess the mental health of individuals involved in legal proceedings.
  • Forensic psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in the mental health aspects of legal issues.
  • The primary focus of forensic psychology is the application of psychological principles to aid in the investigation and prosecution of crimes.

Fields of Forensic Science

  • Forensic anthropology involves examining the remains of deceased individuals to determine how they might have died and to establish facts about them.
  • Forensic art is used to aid in the identification, apprehension, and conviction of offenders.
  • Forensic entomology is the study of insects and their role in criminal investigations.
  • Forensic odontology is the study of dental aspects of criminal activity.

Expert Witnesses

  • Expert witnesses provide testimony on specialized knowledge or skills in court.
  • One of the functions of an expert witness is to educate the jury or court on technical issues.
  • Expert witnesses are distinguished from other witnesses in that they provide opinions or inferences based on their expertise.

Theories of Crime

  • Sheldon's constitutional theory proposes that an individual's body build is linked to their temperament and is a significant factor in criminal behavior.
  • Jacobs and her colleagues' chromosomal theory proposes that chromosomal irregularity is linked to criminal behavior.

Landmark Cases

  • The landmark case of New Jersey v. Fortin involved the evaluation of expert testimony in court.
  • The case of Frye v. United States established the 'general acceptance test' as a criterion for admitting expert testimony in court.

Daubert Criteria

  • The Daubert criteria are used to evaluate the validity of expert testimony in court.
  • The criteria include whether the evidence is based on scientific knowledge, whether the evidence has been tested, and whether the evidence has been peer-reviewed and published.

Forensic Psychology in Court

  • Forensic psychologists assist the courts with their decisions by providing expert testimony on psychological issues.
  • Forensic psychologists evaluate the reliability and credibility of expert testimony in court.

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