Earth Science Final
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Earth Science Final

Test your knowledge on weathering, erosion, and sedimentary rocks with this quiz. Find out about different types of weathering, hydrolysis reactions, sedimentary rock classifications, sedimentary environments, and climates affecting chemical weathering.

Created by
@WellRoundedChalcedony4555

Questions and Answers

What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

weathering is the creation of loose particles and erosion is the removal of these pieces from the landscape

Which of the following types of weathering can occur without water?

exfoliation

Which of the following best describes the hydrolysis reaction?

minerals reacting with slightly acidic water to form new minerals and dissolved ions

Which of the following are arranged from finest to coarsest-grained clastic sedimentary rock?

<p>mudstone, sandstone, conglomerate</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which of the following sedimentary environments would you expect the sand deposits to be poorly sorted?

<p>alluvial fan</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which of the following climates will chemical weathering be most rapid?

<p>hot and humid</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following may reveal the direction of a stream current?

<p>asymmetrical ripple</p> Signup and view all the answers

The two important criteria used for igneous rock classification are _____

<p>mineral composition and texture</p> Signup and view all the answers

An igneous rock with minerals that can be seen with the unaided eye exhibits:

<p>phaneritic texture</p> Signup and view all the answers

If a body of magma is subjected to fractional crystallization, the remaining magma that results is expected to be:

<p>more felsic than the magma</p> Signup and view all the answers

Hawaiian volcanic eruptions are not too dangerous because:

<p>the silica content of the magma is low</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes a granite?

<p>a light-colored, coarse-grained igneous rock rich in silica</p> Signup and view all the answers

Important volatiles in magmas include ____

<p>water and carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following properties increases in the direction of the arrows in the sentence above?

<p>melting temperature</p> Signup and view all the answers

An igneous rock can become a metamorphic rock through the processes of:

<p>recrystallization and reaction</p> Signup and view all the answers

A _____ is the original, unmetamorphosed rock which is a given metamorphic rock is formed

<p>Protolith</p> Signup and view all the answers

The main processes that control the formation of metamorphic rocks are?

<p>Solid-state reaction and recrystallization</p> Signup and view all the answers

The primary difference between phyllite and schist is____

<p>Mica crystals within schist are larger than those within phyllite</p> Signup and view all the answers

The primary difference between lithostatic pressure and directed stress is:

<p>Lithostatic pressure pushes in on rocks equally from all sides, whereas directed stress is greater in one or more directions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which series shows the progression of a metamorphic rock from original deposition of a mudstone protolith to the highest grade of metamorphism?

<p>mud - shale - slate - phyllite - schist -gneiss</p> Signup and view all the answers

An index mineral is defined as _____

<p>a mineral whose appearance in a rock indicates a specific set of metamorphic conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

A metamorphic facies is best defined as a group of rocks that:

<p>were metamorphosed under similar pressure and temperature conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

The blueschist facies form under which of the following conditions?

<p>high pressure but relatively low temperature</p> Signup and view all the answers

The breakdown of exposed rocks into small fragments is termed _______

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A felsic intrusive rock common in the continental crust is ____, and its extrusive equivalent is _____. Oceanic crust is primarily composed of ________, which crystallizes at depth in the earth, and is compositionally equivalent to _____ at the surface

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________ is the primary control on the texture (grain size) of igneous rocks

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During the crystallization process, the first minerals to crystallize are the most: mafic or felsic?

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Name three of the four principal factors controlling metamorphism ______, _____, and _______

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___________ is a pervasive planar fabric within a rock that is formed by directed stress during deformation and metamorphism

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List 4 types of metamorphism:

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__________ is the protolith for quartzite

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________ is a non-foliated metamorphic rock whose protolith is comprised of altered limestone

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the primary basis on which a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a theory is:

<p>the repeated confirmation of the hypothesis by observation and experimentation</p> Signup and view all the answers

The principle of ______ states the present is the key to the past

<p>uniformitarianism</p> Signup and view all the answers

An unconformity is an _______

<p>erosional surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

The geologic time scale is broken up into several sub-divisions from Eons Eras Period Epochs based on empirically derived observations of cross-cutting relationships, faunal successions and new advances in radiometric dating. To which eon do the oldest dated minerals on the Earth belong?

<p>Hadean</p> Signup and view all the answers

Two atoms of a single element that differ in the number of neutrons are said to represent two distinct ____ of that element

<p>isotopes</p> Signup and view all the answers

The figure at right shows the decay curve of a parent radioactive isotope. What is the half-life of this isotope?

<p>8 million years</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Big Bang Theory, our universe is ______

<p>expanding</p> Signup and view all the answers

If a star is being observed from Earth and its light has shifted towards the blue end of the electromagnetic spectrum, it would be:

<p>moving toward the Earth</p> Signup and view all the answers

The production of new elements in stars via nuclear reaction is called _____

<p>nucleosynthesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Aside from Earth, the terrestrial planets are _________

<p>Mars, Mercury, and Venus</p> Signup and view all the answers

The formation of the moon is thought to have occurred by:

<p>simultaneously accretion of material during the initial formation of Earth</p> Signup and view all the answers

From left to right, correctly label each section of this slice of the Earth. Note that 1 starts at the surface of the Earth and 6 ends at the center of the Earth

<p>crust, upper mantle, transition zone, lower mantle, liquid outer core, solid inner core</p> Signup and view all the answers

The shape of the Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a ________

<p>dipole, such as that produced by a bar magnet</p> Signup and view all the answers

The layers that make up the Earth's tectonic plates:

<p>the crust and upper mantle</p> Signup and view all the answers

As compared to the asthenosphere, the lithosphere is ________

<p>cooler and less able to flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is _____________

<p>thicker</p> Signup and view all the answers

the boundary between the crust and mantle is marked by a seismic discontinuity called _______

<p>The Moho</p> Signup and view all the answers

the two most abundant elements in Earth's crust and mantle are:

<p>silicon and oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

the strength of chemical bonds affects the hardness of minerals: the stronger the bonding, the harder the material. which of the following bond types produces the hardest minerals?

<p>covalent</p> Signup and view all the answers

which source of energy is MOST likely responsible for plate tectonic movements?

<p>internal energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

how do magnetic anomalies on the ocean floor serve as evidence for seafloor spreading?

<p>their symmetry on either side of mid-ocean ridges shows that new crust is created and then split apart</p> Signup and view all the answers

Regions of the seafloor with negative magnetic anomalies were formed during times when the Earth's magnetic field ______

<p>had reversed polarity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes the global distribution of earthquakes?

<p>they occur in distinct zones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Deep-ocean trenches are found predominantly along the perimeter of the ____

<p>Pacific Ocean</p> Signup and view all the answers

in a hotspot volcanic island chain, which of the following is true?

<p>the ages of and distance between volcanoes can be used to calculate plate velocities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Transform boundaries are identified by which of the following?

<p>shallow earthquakes, no volcanoes, and a large strike-slip fault</p> Signup and view all the answers

the age of the universe is approximately ________ years old, whereas the age of the Earth is _____ years old

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the Earth contains a number of interacting systems, of which the three main systems of are the _____ system, the _________ system, and the _______ system

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the elements that make up a star's composition throughout the majority of its life are _____ and ______. however, massive stars continue to fuse elements in their coarse all the way up to _____ just prior to their death when their increasing mass cause the star to collapse

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the _____________ hypothesis is thought to accurately describe the formation of our solar system

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the _________ and ___________ are layers of the earth that are dominated by convection, whereas the __________ and the __________ are dominated by conduction

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the innermost layer of the Earth consists of what metallic alloy?

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plate tectonics describe the motion of a mechanically strong layer known as the ______ that moves on top of the weak, connecting portion of the upper ______, known as the _______

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the ________ is the name for the most abundant group of minerals, often called the "rock forming minerals"

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at what type of plate boundary do subduction zones occur ?

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give an example of a mountain range that formed by a continent-continent collision

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the most recent supercontinent, which began to break up about 250 million years ago, is called ________

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