Subcellular Organelles and Cell Membranes - lect 1 Quiz

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By ahmedsafaa

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22 Questions

Which organelle contains the DNA, the chemical basis of genes which governs all the functions of the cell?

What is the network of interconnecting membranes enclosing channels or cisternae, continuous from outer nuclear envelope to outer plasma membrane?

Which organelle is a prominent structure in the cell and contains very long DNA molecules complexed with proteins to form chromatin and further organized into chromosomes?

Under electron microscope, which organelle's reticular arrangements will have railway track appearance?

Which organelle is responsible for the synthesis, modification, sorting, and transport of proteins and lipids?

Which organelle is known as the 'powerhouse of the cell' and is responsible for generating most of the cell's supply of ATP?

Which organelle contains digestive enzymes that break down excess or worn-out cell components?

Which organelle is involved in lipid metabolism, calcium ion storage, and detoxification?

What organelle regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell?

What organelle is a series of flattened sacs known as cisternae that modify, sort, and package proteins and lipids for transportation?

Which organelle is responsible for protein sorting, packaging, and secretion?

What is the main function of mitochondria?

Which organelle is involved in the decomposition of solid wastes inside the cell?

What is the optimum pH for lysosomal enzymes?

Which enzyme is found on the outer part of the cell membrane and is therefore called an ecto-enzyme?

What is the main function of the plasma membrane?

Which organelle contains enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle and heme synthesis?

What type of enzymes are present in lysosomes?

Which organelle has a highly selective permeability properties?

What compounds are membranes mainly made up of?

What is the main function of lysosomes?

Which organelle separates the cell from the external environment?

Summary

  • Lecture in the College of Medicine at Al-Imam AbdulRahman University by Dr. Reyaz Hamid Hanif, Department of Biochemistry
  • Topic: Subcellular Organelles and Cell Membranes in the context of Cell Biology
  • Cells contain various organized structures called organelles

Organelles:

  1. Nucleus:
  • Most prominent organelle in the cell
  • Contains DNA, the genetic material
  • Long DNA molecules complexed with proteins to form chromatin and chromosomes
  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
  • Network of membranes that surround the nucleus and extend to the plasma membrane
  • Fluid-filled channels or cisternae
  • Participates in protein and lipid synthesis, calcium storage, and detoxification
  1. Golgi Apparatus:
  • Network of flat membranes and vesicles near the nucleus
  • Primary function: protein sorting, processing, and modification
  • Secondary function: secretion of proteins and lipids
  1. Mitochondria:
  • Energy-producing organelles
  • Shape: spherical, oval, or rod-like
  • Size: 0.5-1 μm in diameter and up to 7 μm in length
  • Contains the electron transport chain and generates ATP through cellular respiration
  1. Lysosomes:
  • Small organelles involved in waste disposal
  • Contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down cellular waste and foreign particles
  • Formed by fusion of vesicles with lysosomal membrane
  1. Plasma Membrane:
  • Selectively permeable membrane that separates the cell from its external environment
  • Regulates the entry and exit of substances
  • Mainly composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
  1. Key Functions of Plasma Membrane:
  • Separates the cell from the external environment
  • Regulates the entry and exit of substances
  • Influences and possibly regulates the cellular metabolism
  • Metabolically active
  1. Cell Membrane Components:
  • Lipids (mainly phospholipids)
  • Proteins (enzymes, receptors, channels)
  • Carbohydrates (glycoproteins, glycolipids)
  1. Transporters and Enzymes in the Plasma Membrane:
  • Nucleotide phosphatase (5' nucleotidase) and alkaline phosphatase: ecto-enzymes on the outer part of the membrane.

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