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# Water Properties and Pressure

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@StablePraseodymium

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the weight of the fluid?

• Torricelli’s pressure
• Hydrostatic pressure (correct)
• ### What law states that the pressure of a fluid in an enclosed system is proportional to the height of the fluid column?

• Torricelli’s Law (correct)
• Archimedes’ Principle
• Pascal’s Principle
• Bernoulli’s Principle
• ### What type of flow is assumed in the calculation of velocity pressure at constant laminar velocity?

• Turbulent flow
• Viscous flow
• Laminar flow (correct)
• Incompressible flow

### What principle is used to calculate the pressure loss due to friction in a piping system?

<p>Darcy-Weisbach equation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid in motion?

<p>Velocity pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the principle that relates the pressure and velocity of a fluid?

<p>Bernoulli’s Principle</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Ideal Gas Law?

<p>To relate the pressure, volume, and temperature of an ideal gas</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for the concentration of a gas?

<p>mg/m3</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the minimum concentration of a vapor or gas that will ignite in air?

<p>Lower Flammability Limit (LFL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a circuit with components connected one after the other?

<p>Series Circuit</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the measure of opposition to the flow of electric current?

<p>Resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the average concentration of a substance over a period of time?

<p>Time-Weighted Average (TWA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of current flows in one direction only?

<p>Direct Current</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the process of converting grams to moles?

<p>Using the atomic weight of the element</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Combined Gas Law?

<p>To relate the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for electrical power?

<p>Watt</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for the concentration of a particulate?

<p>mg/m3</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a device that stores electric energy?

<p>Capacitor</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a hazard caused by electricity?

<p>Electrical Shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the concentration of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>Threshold Limit Value (TLV)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

<p>To detect ground faults</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a program that ensures equipment is properly grounded?

<p>Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of shoring in excavation?

<p>To prevent soil collapse and protect workers</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the injury caused by the passage of electrical current through the body?

<p>Electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of grounding in electrical safety?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of bonding metal objects together to prevent static electricity?

<p>Bonding</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of a safety net system in fall protection?

<p>To provide a safe landing surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary hazard associated with oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting?

<p>Fire</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of ventilation in welding, cutting, and heating?

<p>To remove hazardous fumes and particles</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of a guardrail system in fall protection?

<p>To prevent falls from heights</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the theory that explains accidents as a result of a series of events?

<p>Domino Theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which theory focuses on the analysis of human factors that contribute to accidents?

<p>Human Factors Theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the model that explains accidents as a result of operating errors, systems defects, and other factors?

<p>Modern Causation Model</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of an accident investigation?

<p>To identify the root cause of the accident</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the technique used to analyze the sequence of events leading to an accident?

<p>Multilinear Events Sequencing Method</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the errors made by individuals in operating a system?

<p>Operating Errors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the defects or failures in the system itself?

<p>Systems Defects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the method used to identify the possible failure modes of a system and their potential effects?

<p>Failure Modes and Effects Analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the opposition to the flow of electric current?

<p>Resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of current flows in one direction only?

<p>Direct Current</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

<p>To interrupt the circuit when a ground fault is detected</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of converting electrical energy into heat energy?

<p>Electrical Burn</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the concentration of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>Permissible Exposure Limit</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of bonding in electrical safety?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the injury caused by the passage of electrical current through the body?

<p>Electrical Shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary hazard associated with oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting?

<p>Fire</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of ventilation in welding, cutting, and heating?

<p>To remove fumes and gases from the work area</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of grounding in electrical safety?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the injury caused by the passage of electrical current through the body?

<p>Electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the program that ensures equipment is properly grounded?

<p>Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of a safety net system in fall protection?

<p>To catch and suspend a falling worker</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the concentration of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>Permissible exposure limit</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of shoring in excavation?

<p>To prevent collapse of the excavation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the total amount of matter in an atom, element, or compound?

<p>Atomic Mass</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid due to the weight of the fluid?

<p>Hydrostatic Pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the law that states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas?

<p>Charles' Law</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a mixture of two or more substances in which each substance maintains its chemical properties?

<p>Mixture</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between the pressure of a fluid and the height of the fluid column?

<p>Direct proportionality</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for the concentration of a particulate?

<p>mg/m3</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What principle is used to calculate the pressure loss due to friction in a piping system?

<p>Bernoulli's Principle</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the law that states that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas?

<p>Boyle's Law</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the energy of a fluid due to its motion?

<p>Kinetic Energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the percentage of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>TLV</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of calculating velocity head in a piping system?

<p>To determine the total head of the fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the process of converting grams to moles?

<p>Converting grams to moles</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the average concentration of a substance over a period of time?

<p>TWA</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between the pressure and velocity of a fluid?

<p>Inverse proportionality</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid in motion?

<p>Velocity Pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary focus of the Human Factors Theory in accident causation?

<p>Identification of human factors that contribute to accidents</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Modern Causation Model?

<p>To explain accidents as a result of operating errors, systems defects, and other factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the defects or failures in the system itself?

<p>System defects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of an accident investigation?

<p>To identify the root cause of an accident and prevent future occurrences</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the sequence of events leading to an accident?

<p>Multilinear events sequencing method</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the errors made by individuals in operating a system?

<p>Operating errors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the method used to identify the possible failure modes of a system and their potential effects?

<p>Failure modes and effects analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of analyzing the sequence of events leading to an accident?

<p>Accident investigation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of pressure is responsible for the flow of fluid in a piping system?

<p>Hydrostatic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of calculating pressure loss due to friction in a piping system?

<p>To determine the energy loss in the system</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the principle that relates the pressure and velocity of a fluid?

<p>Bernoulli's Principle</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of flow is assumed in the calculation of velocity pressure at constant laminar velocity?

<p>Laminar flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the weight of the fluid?

<p>Hydrostatic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the law that states that the pressure of a fluid in an enclosed system is proportional to the height of the fluid column?

<p>Torricelli's Law</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of the Ideal Gas Law?

<p>To describe the behavior of ideal gases under different conditions of temperature and pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for the concentration of a particulate?

<p>Milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Combined Gas Law?

<p>To combine the concepts of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Avogadro's Law</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the minimum concentration of a vapor or gas that will ignite in air?

<p>Lower Flammability Limit (LFL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Time-Weighted Average?

<p>To determine the average concentration of a substance over a period of time</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the concentration of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of converting grams to moles?

<p>Gram-Mole Conversion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the average concentration of a substance over a period of time?

<p>Time-Weighted Average (TWA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the opposition to the flow of electric current?

<p>Resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of current flows in one direction only?

<p>Direct Current</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of converting electrical energy into heat energy?

<p>Joule Heating</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of bonding in electrical safety?

<p>To prevent static electricity</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the concentration of a substance in the air that is considered safe for workers?

<p>Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary hazard associated with oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting?

<p>Fire and explosion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the injury caused by the passage of electrical current through the body?

<p>Electrocution</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary hazard associated with electrical welding and cutting?

<p>Fire and explosions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of a safety net system in fall protection?

<p>To catch falling workers</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the energy of a fluid due to its motion?

<p>Kinetic energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of grounding in electrical safety?

<p>To prevent electrical shock</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the pressure exerted by a fluid in motion?

<p>Dynamic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of a guardrail system in fall protection?

<p>To prevent falls from occurring</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the process of bonding metal objects together to prevent static electricity?

<p>Bonding</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following theories explains accidents as a result of a series of events?

<p>Domino Theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the Investigative Procedure in accident investigation?

<p>To identify the root cause of the accident</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the errors made by individuals in operating a system?

<p>Operating Errors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the method used to identify the possible failure modes of a system and their potential effects?

<p>Failure Modes and Effects Analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of an accident investigation?

<p>To identify the root cause of the accident</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the defects or failures in the system itself?

<p>System Defects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the model that explains accidents as a result of operating errors, systems defects, and other factors?

<p>Modern Causation Model</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the name of the technique used to analyze the sequence of events leading to an accident?

<p>Multilinear Events Sequencing Method</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Water Properties

• Hydrostatic pressure is a key concept in water properties
• Torricelli's Law describes the relationship between head pressure and velocity head
• Velocity head is the energy of a fluid due to its motion
• Velocity pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid in motion at a constant laminar velocity

### Flow Rates and Pressure Drops

• Flow rates and pressure drops are related concepts in hydraulics
• Calculating pressure loss due to friction is an important concept
• Bernoulli's Principle describes the relationship between pressure and velocity in a fluid

### Particulates and Gases

• The periodic table of elements is a fundamental concept in particulates and gases
• Atomic number, atomic mass, and atomic weight are key concepts in chemistry
• Moles, molecules, and compounds are basic units of measurement in chemistry
• Chemical formulas and atomic weights of compounds are important concepts
• Acids, bases, and pH's are key concepts in chemistry
• Gas laws, including Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and the Ideal Gas Law, describe the behavior of gases
• Conversion factors for pressure units and volume units are important for calculations
• The universal gas constant is a fundamental constant in chemistry

### Concentrations of Vapors, Gases, and Particulates

• Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are reference conditions for gas measurements
• Time-weighted average (TWA) is a method for calculating exposure limits
• Calculating PELs/TLVs for periods greater than 8 hours is an important concept
• Gaseous mixtures and liquid mixtures are key concepts in particulates and gases
• Lower flammability limits of mixtures are important for safety calculations

### Electricity Basis

• Voltage, current, and resistance are fundamental concepts in electricity

• Series and parallel circuits are key concepts in electricity

• Direct and alternating currents are types of electrical currents

• Ohm's Laws describe the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance

• Capacitors, inductors, and resistors are key components in electrical circuits

• Electrical shock hazard, burns, and electrical fires are safety concerns in electricity

• Controlling electrical hazards through safety practices and equipment is important### Excavation and Soil Classifications

• Soil classifications are essential in excavation

• Protective systems are necessary in excavation, including sloping, shoring, shields, and RPE-designed protective systems

### Electrical Safety in Construction

• Electrical definitions: voltage, current, resistance
• Electrical injuries: electrical shock, burns, falls
• Controlling electrical hazards: exposed electrical parts, overhead power lines, inadequate wiring, defective or damaged cords and wires, use of flexible cords, improper grounding, ground fault circuit interrupters, assured equipment grounding conductor program, overloaded circuits

### Electrical Definitions and Concepts

• Voltage, current, resistance
• Series and parallel circuits
• Direct and alternating currents
• Ohm's laws: calculating voltage, current, and resistance in DC and AC circuits
• Resistors: calculating resistance in series and parallel circuits
• Capacitors: calculating capacitance in series and parallel circuits
• Inductors: calculating inductance in series and parallel circuits

### Electrical Hazards and Safety

• Electrical shock hazard
• Burns caused by electricity: arc blasts, electrical fires
• Controlling electrical hazards: safety-related work practices, planning, training

### Accident Causation and Investigation

• Heinrich's axioms of industrial safety
• Human factors theory
• Accident and incident theory
• Epidemiological theory
• Systems theory
• Energy release theory
• Behavior theory
• Combination theory
• Modern causation model: operating errors, systems defects, command error, safety program defect, safety management errors

### Accident Investigation Procedures

• Purpose of the investigation
• Investigation procedures: fact-finding, interviews, problem-solving techniques
• Accident investigation techniques: the scientific method, gross hazard analysis, job safety analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis, multilinear events sequencing method

### Scaffolds and Fall Protection

• Fall hazards: falling object (struck by) protection
• Elements of safe scaffold construction: scaffolding training requirements
• Fall protection and prevention: physics of a fall, fall prevention and protection, guardrails, positioning device system, warning line systems, controlled access zone system, safety monitoring system, personal fall arrest system, safety net systems

### Cranes and Derrick Safety

• Cranes and derrick safety (29 CFR 1926.550)

### Welding, Cutting, and Brazing

• Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting: fuel gas and oxygen manifolds, hoses, torches, regulators and gauges, oil and grease hazards
• Arc welding and cutting: manual electrode holders, welding cables and connectors, ground returns and machine grounding
• Resistance welding
• Fire prevention (29 CFR 1926.352)
• Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating (29 CFR 1926.353)

### Hand and Power Tool Safety

• Abrasive grinders: wheel testing, the ring test, the vibration test
• Portable circular saws
• Compressed air systems
• Housekeeping (29 CFR 1926.25)### Excavation and Soil Classifications
• Excavation is a critical aspect of construction, and soil classifications are essential to ensure safe excavation practices.
• Soil classifications are categorized into different types, including sloping, shoring, shields, and RPE-designed protective systems.

### Protective Systems

• Sloping involves cutting the soil at a specific angle to prevent collapse.
• Shoring involves installing supports to prevent soil collapse.
• Shields (trench boxes) are used to protect workers from soil collapse.
• RPE-designed protective systems are customized systems designed to prevent soil collapse.

### Safe Entry and Exit

• Safe entry and exit procedures are crucial to prevent accidents in excavations.
• Procedures include ensuring proper access and egress, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), and maintaining a safe atmosphere.

### Electrical Safety in Construction

• Electrical safety is a critical aspect of construction, as electrical hazards can cause serious injuries and fatalities.
• Electrical definitions include electrical shock, burns, and falls.
• Electrical injuries can be caused by exposed electrical parts, overhead power lines, inadequate wiring, defective or damaged cords and wires, and overloaded circuits.

### Controlling Electrical Hazards

• Controlling electrical hazards involves implementing safety measures, such as:
• Exposed electrical parts: ensuring proper insulation and guarding.
• Overhead power lines: maintaining a safe distance and using protective equipment.
• Inadequate wiring: ensuring proper wiring and connections.
• Defective or damaged cords and wires: regularly inspecting and replacing cords and wires.

### Scaffolds and Fall Protection

• Scaffolds are used to support workers during construction, and proper scaffolding is crucial to prevent falls.
• Fall hazards include falling objects, falling from heights, and falling through openings.
• Fall protection measures include:
• Guardrails: preventing falls from heights.
• Positioning device systems: securing workers to the scaffold.
• Warning line systems: warning workers of fall hazards.
• Controlled access zone systems: limiting access to areas with fall hazards.
• Safety monitoring systems: monitoring workers for fall hazards.

### Cranes and Derrick Safety

• Cranes and derricks are used to lift heavy loads, and proper safety measures are crucial to prevent accidents.
• Safety measures include regular inspections, proper load calculations, and ensuring proper operation and maintenance.

### Welding, Cutting, and Brazing

• Welding, cutting, and brazing involve the use of heat and flames, and proper safety measures are crucial to prevent fires and injuries.
• Safety measures include:
• Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting: ensuring proper ventilation and fire prevention.
• Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds: ensuring proper connections and storage.
• Hoses: ensuring proper maintenance and inspection.
• Torches: ensuring proper maintenance and inspection.
• Regulators and gauges: ensuring proper maintenance and inspection.

### Hand and Power Tool Safety

• Hand and power tools are used in various construction tasks, and proper safety measures are crucial to prevent injuries.
• Safety measures include:
• Abrasive grinders: ensuring proper wheel testing and ring testing.
• Portable circular saws: ensuring proper training and maintenance.
• Compressed air systems: ensuring proper training and maintenance.

### Particulates and Gases

• Particulates and gases are hazardous substances found in construction environments, and proper safety measures are crucial to prevent injuries.
• Safety measures include:
• Understanding the properties of particulates and gases, including atomic number, atomic mass, and chemical bonding.
• Understanding gas laws, including Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and the Ideal Gas Law.
• Calculating concentrations of vapors, gases, and particulates.
• Understanding standards and regulations for particulates and gases.

### Water Properties

• Water properties are critical in construction, as they affect the behavior of fluids and the stability of structures.
• Water properties include hydrostatic pressure, Torricelli's Law, head pressure, velocity head, and flow rates.

### Accident Causation and Investigation

• Accident causation involves understanding the root causes of accidents, including human factors, systems defects, and energy release.
• Accident investigation techniques include:
• The Domino Theory: understanding the sequence of events leading to an accident.
• Heinrich's Axioms of Industrial Safety: understanding the relationship between accidents and near-misses.
• Human Factors Theory: understanding human behavior and errors.
• Systems Theory: understanding the role of systems in accidents.
• Energy Release Theory: understanding the role of energy release in accidents.
• Behavior Theory: understanding human behavior and motivations.
• Combination Theory: understanding the combination of factors leading to accidents.

### Accident Investigation Procedures

• Accident investigation procedures involve:
• Purpose of the investigation: determining the cause of the accident.
• Investigation procedures: gathering evidence, interviewing witnesses, and analyzing data.
• Fact-finding: determining the facts of the accident.
• Problem-solving techniques: using techniques such as the scientific method, gross hazard analysis, and job safety analysis to identify root causes.
• Report of investigation: documenting the findings and recommendations.

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## Description

Test your knowledge of water properties, hydrostatic pressure, Torricelli's Law, head pressure, and velocity head. Understand the concepts and applications of water pressure in various fields.

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