Volatile Oils Quiz

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30 Questions

Which type of substances are grouped together based on their insolubility in water and solubility in most organic solvents?

Lipids

Which acid is considered a universal precursor for fatty acids, lipids, and other organic plant products?

Citric acid

Which substance present in soybean is found in proprietary products useful for controlling deranged lipid and cholesterol metabolism?

Lecithin

What is the predominant fatty acid constituent of rapeseed oil from Brassica napus?

Erucic acid

How is the best method to obtain citrus volatile oils whose aroma is adversely affected by heat?

Expression

What is the principal component of volatile oil?

Terpenes

Which enzyme can hydrolyze a considerable number of glycosides?

Emulsin and myrosin

Which glycoside found in garlic possesses anti-platelet, anti-microbial, and anti-rheumatic properties?

Allicin

Which glycoside yields allyl isothiocyanate as one of the products of hydrolysis?

Sinigrin

What is the hallucinogenic agent derived from Cannabis sativa?

Tetrahydrocannabinol

What principle obtained from fish berries, Cocculus indicus, was formerly used as an analeptic?

Picrotoxin

Which substance destroys red blood corpuscles by hemolysis and is particularly toxic to cold-blooded animals?

Saponin glycoside

Which of the following is a volatile oil that is NOT used as a condiment?

Olive oil

Which plant produces a volatile oil containing Anethole?

Anise

Which plant serves as a source of drugs for antimalaria and anticancer properties?

Artemisia annua

Which of the following volatile oils contains phenol components?

Eucalyptus

How are volatile oils most commonly isolated?

Steam distillation

'Ascaridol,' a volatile oil constituent, is obtained from which plant's oil?

Chenopodium

Which alkaloid obtained from ergot is commonly used to relieve or treat migraines?

Ergotamine

Which organism is used in the parasitic method of producing Ergot alkaloids?

A & B

Which of the following are plant sources of purine bases alkaloids?

All of the choices

Among the options, which plant source does not provide tropane alkaloids?

Senna

What is the alkaloid reagent composed of Iodine in potassium iodine solution known as?

Wagner's reagent

Which of the following alkaloids is not a liquid alkaloid, unlike the others mentioned?

Sparteine

Which amino acid is the least used as a precursor in the biosynthesis of alkaloids?

Adenine

What is the amino acid precursor of indole alkaloids via anthranilic acid?

L-tryptophan

Which plant could be used in the eyes for dilation of the pupil, giving a striking appearance?

Belladonna leaf

Which class of natural products is involved in platelet aggregation, pain, and inflammation?

Prostaglandins

Which hormone is a uterine stimulating fraction and relatively free from action on other smooth muscle?

Oxytocin

Which statement about glucagon is FALSE?

It is produced by the β-cells

Study Notes

Glycosides

  • Most glycosides are subject to hydrolysis, resulting in the cleavage of glycoside linkages, by acid or enzyme.
  • Sinigrin yields allyl isothiocyanate as one of the products of hydrolysis.
  • Cyanophore glycosides are derivatives of mandelonitrile.
  • Picrotoxin is a glycosidic principle obtained from fish berries, Cocculus indicus, formerly used as an analeptic.
  • Allicin is a glycoside found in garlic that possesses anti-platelet, anti-microbial, and anti-rheumatic properties.
  • Flavonoids are found in yellow flower pigments, also known as chalcones.
  • Saponin glycoside destroys red blood corpuscles by hemolysis and is toxic especially to cold-blooded animals.
  • Emulsin and myrosin are enzymes that hydrolyze a considerable number of glycosides.

Other Compounds

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol is a hallucinogenic agent derived from Cannabis sativa.
  • Balsam of Peru is an oleoresin used extremely as a counterirritant.
  • Mandelonitrile is a glycoside found in cassava.
  • Lipids are substances grouped together on the basis of their insolubility in water and solubility in most organic solvents.
  • Acetic acid is an acid considered as a universal precursor for fatty acids, lipids, and other organic plant products.
  • Lecithin is a substance present in soybean that can be found in number of proprietary products that are useful in controlling deranged lipid and cholesterol metabolism.
  • Erucic acid is the predominant fatty acid constituent of rapeseed oil from Brassica napus (Brassicaceae).
  • Citrus volatile oils whose aroma is injuriously affected by heat are best obtained by expression.
  • Glandular cells are oil tubes found in plants under the Apiaceae family that contain the volatile oil.
  • Menthol is the principal component of volatile oil.
  • Eugenol is the active constituent of Clove oil.
  • Anethole is a volatile oil that is used as an antipruritic.

Volatile Oils

  • Volatile oils are usually obtained by steam distillation, with the exception of the oils from Pinaceae, which are obtained via destructive distillation.
  • Ascaridol is a volatile oil constituent obtained from the Chenopodium oil.
  • Volatile oils are used for therapeutic action, flavoring, and perfumery.
  • Volatile oils may occur in the oil cells, glandular hairs, and ducts of the plant.

Alkaloids

  • Ergotamine is an alkaloid used to relieve or treat migraine.
  • Claviceps purpurea is the organism used in the parasitic method of producing Ergot alkaloids.
  • Plant sources of purine bases alkaloids include Kola, Tea, and Cacao.
  • Plant sources of tropane alkaloids include Belladonna, Stramonium, and Hyoscyamus.
  • Mayer's reagent is an alkaloid reagent composed of Iodine, in potassium iodine solution.
  • Conine is a liquid alkaloid that lacks oxygen in the molecule.
  • Quinine is the alkaloid that continues to be the drug of choice against malaria.
  • Morphine is the most widely used opium alkaloid, which is a narcotic analgesic and anti-tussive, and is used as a sedative, especially in allaying coughs.
  • Physostigmine is the alkaloid found in Calabar bean.
  • Tyrosine is the amino acid precursor of alkaloids via dopamine.

Hormones

  • Oxytocin is a uterine stimulating fraction and is relatively free from action on other smooth muscle.
  • Prostaglandins are a class of natural products with potent and diverse biological activities involved in platelet aggregation, pain, and inflammation.
  • Glucagon is produced by the α-cells and exerts counterbalancing action on carbohydrate metabolism in the body, eliciting a hyperglycemic response in the body.
  • Thyroid hyperactivity is characterized by muscle weakness with tremor, loss of body weight and fat, increased heart rate and blood pressure, but intolerance to cold.

Test your knowledge on volatile oils used as condiments and for medicinal purposes. Identify the plant sources, properties, and uses of different volatile oils.

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