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Swine Quiz

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Sow = Adult female having had one or more litters Gilt = Female not having reached sexual maturity Boar = Intact adult male Pig = Refers to any swine other than sow, gilt, or boar

Barrow = Neutered adult male Stag = Male castrated after puberty Farrow = To give birth Swine = Refers to the porcine species

Piglet = Very young, small pig, generally from birth to weaning Shoat = Intact male, before puberty; sometimes used as a synonym for pig Pig = Young swine of either sex, less than 120 lb (about 4 months old) Hog = Large swine, more than 120 lb, of either sex; commercial swine producers usually prefer this term when referring to any size of swine

Worlds most consumed meat

Pork

Downside of pasture management system

Fewer animals produced per acre

Advantage of pasture management system

Both A and C

Disadvantages of confinement units management systems

Both A and B

Swine management can be

All of the above

How many litters to sows average per year

2

What is the average litter size

9-10 pigs

When are the highest death losses within the entire pork industry

Within 3-4 days of birth

When are pigs weaned

3-4 weeks of age, 10-25# of body weight

Post-weaning facility to 10 weeks of age (50# body weight)

Nursery

50# to market weight (250#)

Finishing

Maternal = large litter size, number of teats, milk production, maternal attitude (males can be ‘maternal type’ breed) Terminal = carcass composition, rapid maturing, feed efficiency 1 = 1 2 = 2

Berkshire = black body; white snout, tail and legs, erect ears Chester white = all white, ears tipped forward Duroc = all red, drooping ears, slightly dished face Hampshire = black, white belt over shoulder region

Berkshire = terminal breed—fast, efficient growth Chester white = maternal breed Duroc = terminal breed

  • = -

Hampshire = terminal breed Landrace = maternal breed Pot bellied pig = Like miniature horses, these ‘boutique’ pets are often purchased by individuals having no knowledge of the care requirements of swine; most disease conditions seen in these pigs are directly attributable to poor management

  • = -

Landrace = white color, drooping ears, trim physique Yorkshire = white with erect ears and dished face Pot bellied pig = Adult weight 75-150 lbs, 3 feet long 1 = 1

Yorkshire

Maternal

Hampshire

Terminal

Landrace

Maternal

Gestation period of the equine

340 days

Gestation period of the bovine

280-290 days (some breed variation)

Gestation period of the porcine

112-115 days // 3 mo +3 weeks + 3 days

Gestation period of the ovine/caprine

~150 days

How long (average) is the heat period of swine

2 days

How often does the heat period of a cow occur

20-21 days

How can you synchronize gilts heat period

Put them together in a pen next to a board

When is semen administered

24 hours after first incidence and then 12 hours later

How long is the gestation period of swine

Both A and B

Most farms are total confinement

True

Iron is administered 48 hours after birth

False

Iron is 24 hours after birth

True

When is the best time for castration

between 1 and 14 days

Temperature range

101-103.5

What is the pulse rate of a new born

200-280/min

what is the pulse rate of adult swine

60-90/min

What is the average respiration rate of adult swine

10-24/min

What is the respiration rate in very young swine

up to 50/min

Age of female puberty

4-8 months

Age of male puberty

6-8 months

Time of first breeding is 7-9 months

True

Estrous cycle length is 18-24 days

True

Time of ovulation

40-46 hours after the beginning of estrus

All babies should be delivered within ______________

4-6 hours

Which is the preferred route for blood sampling in swine

Lateral auricular vein

How much blood can you pull from the orbital sinus

5-10mL

Where can subcutaneous injections be given to swine

Both A and B

Which side does the litter number go on

Right

Study Notes

Swine Management

  • Swine is the most consumed meat globally.
  • The pasture management system has its downsides, but it also offers advantages.

Advantages of Pasture Management System

  • Provides a more natural environment for swine.
  • Enhances animal welfare.

Disadvantages of Confinement Units Management Systems

  • Increases stress and disease spread among swine.
  • Can lead to environmental pollution.

Swine Breeding and Reproduction

  • Swine management can be done through various methods, including breeding and reproduction.
  • Sows average 2-3 litters per year.
  • Average litter size is 10-12 piglets.
  • Highest death losses occur within the first 3 days of life.
  • Piglets are weaned at 10-14 days old.
  • Post-weaning facilities care for piglets from 10 weeks to 50 pounds body weight.
  • Piglets are raised to market weight (250 pounds) from 50 pounds.

Swine Breeds

  • Yorkshire: a popular breed.
  • Hampshire: a popular breed.
  • Landrace: a popular breed.

Gestation Periods

  • Equine: 320-340 days.
  • Bovine: 280-290 days.
  • Porcine: 114 days.
  • Ovine/Caprine: 145-155 days.

Reproductive Cycles

  • Swine heat period lasts 2-3 days.
  • Heat period occurs every 18-24 days.
  • Gilts' heat period can be synchronized.
  • Semen is administered 2-3 days after estrus.
  • Swine gestation period is approximately 114 days.

Farm Management

  • Most farms use total confinement systems.
  • Iron is administered to piglets 48 hours after birth.
  • Castration is best done at 3-4 days old.
  • Ideal temperature range for swine is 50-70°F (10-21°C).

Health and Monitoring

  • Newborn pulse rate is 100-120 beats per minute.
  • Adult swine pulse rate is 60-80 beats per minute.
  • Average respiration rate of adult swine is 12-20 breaths per minute.
  • Respiration rate in very young swine is 20-30 breaths per minute.
  • Female puberty occurs at 5-6 months.
  • Male puberty occurs at 5-7 months.
  • Time of first breeding is 7-9 months.
  • Ovulation occurs 10-12 hours after estrus.
  • All babies should be delivered within 10-12 hours.
  • Preferred route for blood sampling is the orbital sinus.
  • Up to 10 mL of blood can be pulled from the orbital sinus.
  • Subcutaneous injections can be given on the neck or behind the ear.
  • Litter number is written on the right ear.

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