Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)

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31 Questions

What is the main cause of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

Deficiency of surfactant

When does the respiratory distress typically start in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

2nd to 7th day after birth

What is the mortality rate in infants weighing less than 1kg with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

50%

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

Fever

How does the incidence and severity of NRDS vary with gestational age?

It decreases with increasing gestational age

What are the causes and contributing factors of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

All of the above

Which of the following can lead to Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) due to suppressed surfactant production?

Maternal diabetes

What is one of the genetic disorders associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

Abnormalities in proteins B and C

Which factor contributes to Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) by inhibiting surfactant production?

excessive sedation of the mother during birth

Which condition can lead to Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) as a result of cold exposure?

Cold stress

Which of the following is a consequence of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

Inflammation of the lungs

Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) is primarily caused by:

Immature and damaged Type II pneumocytes

Type II pneumocytes are responsible for:

Synthesising alveolar surfactant

What happens when there is low surfactant in the airways/lungs?

The airways/lungs collapse

Which of the following is a consequence of lung collapse in NRDS?

Hypoxia (reduction of O2)

What is the effect of hypoxia in NRDS?

Pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar epithelial damage

What is the consequence of pulmonary vasoconstriction in NRDS?

Shunting of blood (blood bypassing the lungs without oxygenation)

What happens as a result of alveolar epithelial damage in NRDS?

Fibrinous exudate entering the alveoli

What is the final outcome of fibrinous exudate entering the alveoli in NRDS?

Fibrin hyalin membrane formation

What is the term used to describe the collapse of lung tissue in NRDS?

Atelectasis

Which of the following occurs as a result of NRDS leading to a ventilation-perfusion mismatch?

Arterial hypoxemia

Which of the following can occur as a complication of NRDS?

Hypoxic-related brain damage

What is the term for the proteinaceous material that lines the alveoli in NRDS?

Hyaline membrane

Which of the following is a consequence of NRDS on lung fluid absorption?

Decreased fluid absorption

What can NRDS potentially cause in terms of the heart?

Failure to close the ductus arteriosus

What can result from NRDS in terms of lung tissue?

Fibrosis due to fibrin exudation

Which of the following is a treatment option for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)?

Synthetic surfactant therapy

What is one of the supportive care measures for babies with NRDS?

Fluid management

At what gestational age is betamethasone administered to pre-term mothers?

26-28 weeks gestation

How does the recovery phase of NRDS in larger premature infants manifest?

Regeneration of alveolar cells

When does endogenous surfactant synthesis begin in larger premature infants?

36-72 hours after birth

Study Notes

Causes and Contributing Factors of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS)

  • Deficiency of surfactant in the lungs is the main cause of NRDS
  • Premature birth, especially before 34 weeks, is a significant contributing factor
  • Other contributing factors include maternal diabetes, hypertension, and fetal distress
  • Genetic disorders, such as ABCA3 mutations, can also contribute to NRDS

Symptoms and Characteristics of NRDS

  • Respiratory distress typically starts immediately after birth or within the first 6 hours
  • Mortality rate is high in infants weighing less than 1kg, with a mortality rate of around 50%
  • Symptoms of NRDS include tachypnea, grunting, and cyanosis
  • Lung collapse and ventilation-perfusion mismatch are common consequences of NRDS
  • Hypoxia can lead to pulmonary vasoconstriction, further exacerbating the condition

Pathophysiology of NRDS

  • Surfactant deficiency leads to increased surface tension in the lungs, causing alveolar collapse
  • Type II pneumocytes are responsible for producing surfactant
  • Low surfactant levels in the airways/lungs cause alveolar collapse and atelectasis
  • Fibrinous exudate entering the alveoli can lead to the formation of hyaline membranes
  • Alveolar epithelial damage can cause further inflammation and damage

Treatment and Supportive Care

  • Exogenous surfactant administration is a common treatment option for NRDS
  • Supportive care measures include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and antibiotics
  • Betamethasone is administered to pre-term mothers at 28-34 weeks of gestation to stimulate fetal surfactant production
  • In larger premature infants, the recovery phase of NRDS often manifests as a gradual improvement in respiratory function
  • Endogenous surfactant synthesis begins in larger premature infants around 34 weeks of gestation

Test your knowledge about the consequences of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) by answering questions about proteinaceous material in alveoli, complications, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, fibrinous exudate, and alveolar epithelial damage.

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