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Understanding Criminal Behavior

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Organized crime groups always operate with the main purpose of committing serious crimes for financial gain.


White-collar crime typically stems from legitimate business activity.


Terrorism aims to achieve political or social objectives through acts of violence.


A criminal organization is defined as having at least 5 members working together for the commission of serious crimes.


White-collar crime and organized crime have no similarities in their criminal behavior.


An organized criminal group must exist for a considerable period before engaging in any criminal activities.


Organized crime groups usually rely on the corruption of public officials to ensure their continued operation.


The term 'organized crime' is interchangeable with 'terrorism' due to their similar nature of criminal activities.


Freedom and discretion can lead to fewer opportunities for abuse.


Individualists (Integrative) have strong group strength and rules.


Isolates (Expressive) are not isolated or alienated offenders.


Ideologues (Conservative) base their decisions on existing frameworks rather than making every decision from scratch.


Organized Hierarchy (Adaptive) groups operate with procedures and routines.


Integrative offenders value long-term relationships over short-lived ones.


Expressive offenders feel like they are victims of others' actions.


Adaptive groups, like the US mafia, have a low level of classification and ranks.


Chains as subgroups are subgroups that are connected to each other with each member connected to all other members.


Degree centrality measures allow for determining the relevance and importance of a node in a network.


In-degree in a network refers to the number of tail endpoints adjacent to the node.


Closeness and betweenness are types of centrality measures used in network analysis.


In POSA analysis, higher scores indicate nodes that are more isolated and less connected in the network.


High-ranked nodes in POSA analysis will appear scattered across the geometric space.


Networks with closer groups will exhibit more diversity in terms of node characteristics.


Organized crime networks analyzed using POSA show that closer groups have more distinct profiles and characteristics.


Sammy Gravano earned the nickname 'Sammy the Bull' because of his strength and size.


Sammy Gravano dropped out of high school because he found it too challenging and wanted to pursue a life of crime.


Sammy Gravano only targeted private homes for theft because they were easier to burglarize.


Sammy Gravano's reputation among criminal elements improved after his time in prison.


Organized crime groups always have the same objectives as terrorist groups.


Joining organized crime can provide individuals with special access to resources like education and healthcare.


Sammy Gravano's nickname 'Sammy the Bull' stemmed from his admiration for bullfighting.


Sammy Gravano viewed those who stayed in school as more intelligent and respectable than himself.


Vyacheslav Ivankov's propensity toward violence led him to become involved in organized crime in New York City.


By the age of 15, Vyacheslav Ivankov was known for his street brawling and enjoyment of beating up people.


Vyacheslav Ivankov's criminal connections expanded internationally after being imprisoned.


The number of organized crime groups decreased from 2008 to 2013.


In 2020, half of the organized crime groups had scopes limited to Canada only.


Vyacheslav Ivankov's involvement in organized crime started in Moscow, Russia.


Vyacheslav Ivankov was primarily involved in legal businesses before turning to organized crime.


Organized crime groups have a direct impact on taxes, safety, and banking fees.


What does in-degree centrality measure in a network?

The number of head endpoints adjacent to the node

What is the main difference between chains and clusters as subgroups in a network?

Relationship between the subgroups

How is the importance of a node in a network quantified using centrality measures?

By determining its relevance and influence within the network

In terms of centrality measures, what does out-degree refer to in a network?

The number of outgoing connections from the node

What is the primary focus of centrality measures in network analysis?

Assessing the relevance and importance of nodes

What is a core feature of a social network according to social network analysis?

Individuals coordinating operations

What is the primary role of the key central figures ('generals') within a social network's core group?

Coordinating import and resale activities

In a social network, what is the role of mid-level individuals ('captains')?

Conducting daily operations and liaising with lower-level members

What do cliques within a social network typically consist of?

Members trusted neutrally

Which term refers to the process of identifying individuals in a social network and the relationships between them?

Social network analysis

What distinguishes a criminal network's core criminal group?

Limited number of individuals with very structured groups

In the context of criminal networks, what does 'internal coordination and discipline' refer to?

Clear allocation of tasks and code of conduct

What is the main goal of an investigator when determining where a criminal network resides on a dimension?

Determining the level of group strength within the network

Which quantitative dimensions distinguish criminal cultures according to Mars (2000)?

Classification and group strength

What differentiates isolates (Expressive) in criminal networks?

They are alienated offenders

Which type of offenders are isolated or alienated, feel like victims of others' actions, and may still have contact with other offenders?

Isolates (Expressive)

Which type of organized crime group operates with procedures and routines, has a higher degree of classification, and commits strongly?

Organized Hierarchy (Adaptive)

Nodes that are more isolated and less connected in a network would receive what kind of centrality scores in network analysis?

Low scores

Which type of offender lacks group strength and rules, displays obvious consumption to wealth, and is more obvious to law enforcement?


In network analysis, what does 'degree centrality' measure about a node within a network?

Relevance and importance within the network

What is the primary distinguishing characteristic of Category One criminal groups according to Criminal Intelligence Service Canada?

Poses the most threat and operates intraprovincially and internationally

In Criminal Intelligence Service Canada's classification, which type of criminal group poses the least threat?

Operates within a single area (town or city)

Which level of criminal threat would a group with specialized expertise but no capacity to expand have?

Lower-level threat

What distinguishes Category Two criminal groups according to Criminal Intelligence Service Canada?

Operates at the international and interprovincial levels

What characterizes a criminal group that focuses on single provinces according to Criminal Intelligence Service Canada?

Mid-level threat

What is the main difference between the objectives of terrorist groups and organized crime groups?

Organized crime groups have profit motives, unlike terrorist groups that have political objectives.

What motivated individuals to join organized crime according to the text?

Toughness, trouble, and smartness

What term refers to nodes that are more isolated and less connected in a network analysis?


Which measure allows for determining the relevance and importance of a node in a network?

Degree centrality

What type of sub-groups are connected to each other with each member connected to all other members in a network?


What is the primary characteristic of an organized criminal group according to the consensus definition provided?

Profit from illicit activities through rational workings

In network analysis, what does 'out-degree' centrality measure refer to?

Number of connections coming from a node

What distinguishes white-collar crime from organized crime based on the text?

Organized crime relies on legitimate business activities, while white-collar crime deviates from them.

Which centrality measure determines the relevance and importance of a node in a network?

Degree centrality

What is the main difference between chains and clusters as subgroups in a network?

Chains are linear, while clusters are more centralized.

How is the importance of a node in a network quantified using centrality measures?

By analyzing the number and strength of connections to other nodes

What do adaptive groups like the US mafia typically operate with according to the text?

Low level of classification and ranks

What does 'in-degree' centrality measure in a network?

Number of connections pointing towards a node

What is the common aspect between white-collar crime and terrorism based on the text?

Both stem from illicit activities

What type of criminal behavior characterizes expressive offenders based on the text?

Feelings of isolation and victimization by others' actions

Study Notes

Organized Crime

  • Organized crime is a continuing criminal enterprise that rationally works to profit from illicit activities that are often in great public demand.
  • Its continuing existence is maintained through the use of force, threats, monopoly control, and/or the corruption of public officials.

Definition of Criminal Organization

  • In Canada, a criminal organization is defined as a group of three or more people who, within or outside Canada, commit or facilitate a serious offence that results in material benefit (CCC 467.1(1)).
  • Globally, an organized criminal group is defined as three or more members taking action in concert to commit a serious crime for financial or other benefits.

Impact of Organized Crime

  • Taxes go up, safety is compromised, and banking fees increase to account for fraud.
  • Direct and tangible impacts include increased costs and decreased safety.
  • Indirect and intangible impacts include social and economic harm.

Size and Scope of Organized Crime

  • In 2006, there were approximately 800 organized crime groups in Canada.
  • By 2019, this number had increased to over 1850.
  • Half of these groups have interprovincial scopes, and some have international connections to 77 other countries.

Social Network Analysis (SNA)

  • A social network is a social structure of people related to each other through a common relation or interest.
  • SNA views social relationships in terms of network theory, focusing on nodes (individuals) and ties (relationships between individuals).
  • Features of social networks include:
    • Core group of individuals that coordinate operations
    • Sub-groups ("soldiers") that carry out different activities
    • Mid-level individuals ("captains") who conduct daily operations and liaise with lower-level members
    • Isolated individuals who provide information and resources

Types of Criminal Networks

  • Individualists (Integrative): lack of both group strength and rules, with obvious consumption of wealth.
  • Isolates (Expressive): isolated or alienated offenders who feel like victims of acts of others and act alone.
  • Ideologues (Conservative): groups driven by ideology, with an egalitarian outlook and decisions made from scratch.
  • Organized Hierarchy (Adaptive): groups with a higher degree of classification and ranks, operating with procedures and routines.

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada

  • Category One: poses the most threat and operates intraprovincially and internationally.
  • Category Two: international and interprovincial.
  • Category Three: single province.
  • Category Four: single area (town or city), least threat.

Explore different types of offenders based on their behaviors and motivations. Learn about individualists who lack group cohesion and rules, as well as isolates who feel alienated and victimized. Understand the relationship between autonomy and opportunities for abuse in criminal behavior.

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