Types of Non-Experimental Design in Research

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18 Questions

What is a key characteristic of experimental research according to the text?

Randomly assigning participants to groups

Which type of research design involves physically manipulating treatment conditions for one or more groups?

True experimental design

What is the main difference between experimental and non-experimental designs?

Control over extraneous variables in non-experimental designs

Which type of design involves observing and measuring variables as they naturally occur over an extended period?

Longitudinal research design

In which type of research design are relationships between variables studied without manipulation of variables?

Correlational research design

What is the primary focus of survey research designs?

Obtaining data from a sample to describe characteristics of a larger population

Which type of research design involves an intervention but not random assignment of participants to groups?

Quasi-experimental design

In a factorial design, the researcher tests for the interaction of how many independent variables?

Two or more

Which type of research design involves studying a single group and collecting more than one outcome measure?

Time series design

What is the main characteristic of non-experimental designs?

They lack manipulation of an independent variable

Which type of research is concerned with the current or past status of something?

Survey study

What is a key feature of a single-subject design?

It examines one individual at a time and establishes a baseline of behavior

What type of research design involves the investigator identifying the sample and the population, collecting data through questionnaires or interviews, and drawing conclusions about the population?

Survey design

Which survey design is useful for assessing information at a single point in time?

Cross-sectional design

In longitudinal surveys, what do panel studies involve?

Following up a unit of analysis at certain intervals over a long period

What is the primary purpose of longitudinal studies?

To assess changes over time with trends or in cohorts

Which type of non-experimental design focuses on examining the relationships between variables without manipulating them?

Correlational design

What distinguishes longitudinal surveys from cross-sectional surveys?

Longitudinal studies follow up the same individuals over time

Study Notes

Non-Experimental Designs

  • Survey research is a form of quantitative research that involves identifying a sample and population, collecting data through questionnaires or interviews, and making inferences about the population.
  • Surveys are used to assess information at one point in time.

Types of Survey Designs

  • Cross-sectional design: examines attitudes, beliefs, opinions, or practices at one point in time.
  • Longitudinal design: assesses changes over time with trends of a population or changes in a cohort group.

Longitudinal Design

  • Longitudinal surveys assess changes over time with trends of a population or changes in a cohort group.
  • Longitudinal studies are descriptive and explanatory in nature, mainly used in applied sciences.

Types of Longitudinal Designs

  • Panel studies: unit of analysis followed up at certain intervals over a long period, often many years.

Non-Experimental Designs

  • Non-experimental designs are used in descriptive studies, units are selected to take part in the study and measured on all relevant variables.
  • Non-experimental designs lack the manipulation of an independent variable and are concerned with the current or past status of something.

Categories of Quantitative Designs

  • Experimental designs: true experimental, pre-test-post test control, post-test-only control, Solomon four group, factorial design.
  • Non-experimental designs: quasi-experimental, time-series, pre-experimental, one-shot case study, one group pre-test post-test.
  • Non-traditional designs: survey, simple, longitudinal, developmental, comparative, correlational, retrospective, prospective, path analysis, predictive, case studies, historical, methodological, meta-analysis, secondary analysis, evaluation, needs assessment, action studies, philosophical.

Experimental Designs

  • Experimental designs involve random assignment of participants to groups or units, control over extraneous variables, physical manipulation of treatment conditions, and measurement of outcomes.
  • True experiments involve random assignment of participants to groups or units and are the most rigorous and controlled of all types.

Characteristics of Experimental Research

  • Random assignment of participants to groups or units.
  • Control over extraneous variables to isolate the effects of the independent variable on the outcomes.
  • Physical manipulation of the treatment conditions for one or more groups.
  • Measurement of the outcomes for the groups to determine if the experimental treatment had a different effect than the non-experimental treatment.

Explore the different types of non-experimental designs in research, including survey, longitudinal, comparative, and more. Learn about survey research, sample identification, data collection methods, and drawing conclusions about a population.

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