The Science of Eating
30 Questions
5 Views
3.7 Stars

The Science of Eating

Test your knowledge on the central control of feeding and the two different views on the purpose of eating. Explore the concepts of energy reserves, hunger, caloric homeostasis, and inhibitory signals.

Created by
@BenevolentRapture

Questions and Answers

Which of the following is one of the two views on the purpose of eating discussed in the text?

To restore energy reserves

What is the role of caloric homeostasis in maintaining brain function?

It requires sufficient blood glucose

Which of the following is NOT one of the three categories of nutrients mentioned in the text?

Vitamins

What happens during the prandial or fed state?

<p>Newly ingested nutrients are immediately used or stored</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of glycogenesis and lipogenesis?

<p>To store nutrients as glycogen and fat</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a metabolic state characterized by an absence of calories entering circulation?

<p>Fasting state</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the top two leading causes of death in the US according to the text?

<p>Heart disease and cancer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a role of caloric homeostasis mentioned in the text?

<p>Preventing obesity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which nutrient category can transform into carbohydrates and lipids under demand?

<p>Proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of compromised glucose supply to the brain?

<p>Loss of consciousness</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone promotes storage and efficient use of ingested nutrients?

<p>Insulin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which glycogen is converted to glucose?

<p>Glycogenolysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of meal-related insulin secretion involves neural anticipation?

<p>Cephalic phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What hormone slows the rate of gastric emptying and prolongs gastric distention?

<p>CCK</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone acts as a satiety factor by reaching the brain and binding to hypothalamic receptors?

<p>Leptin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is released from ghrelin cells of the stomach and increases during the fasting period?

<p>Ghrelin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which tissue stores the most glycogen?

<p>Liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which triglycerides are converted to fatty acids and glycerol?

<p>Lipolysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is a key regulator of food intake and caloric homeostasis?

<p>Insulin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of meal-related insulin secretion involves nutrients absorbed by the intestine signaling the pancreas via circulation?

<p>Substrate phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is true about the Body Mass Index (BMI)?

<p>BMI is calculated by dividing weight by height squared</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main control center of food intake in the brain?

<p>Hypothalamus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is true about the Dual Center Hypothesis?

<p>Lesions in the VLH cause aphagia and starvation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which peptides are released by the hypothalamus to influence food intake?

<p>NPY and AgRP</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a catabolic peptide that decreases food intake?

<p>Oxytocin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an anabolic peptide that increases food intake?

<p>NPY</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the microbiota in relation to the brain and gut?

<p>It closes the gap between the brain and gut</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of insulin and leptin on food intake?

<p>They decrease food intake</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the health risk associated with abdominal fat?

<p>It poses a high risk for inflammation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the definition of obesity?

<p>A BMI greater than 30</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Views on Eating

  • One of the two views on the purpose of eating is that it is a necessary function for survival and maintaining energy homeostasis.

Caloric Homeostasis

  • Caloric homeostasis plays a crucial role in maintaining brain function by ensuring a stable supply of glucose.
  • One of the roles of caloric homeostasis is to regulate food intake and energy storage.

Nutrient Categories

  • The three categories of nutrients mentioned are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
  • Proteins can transform into carbohydrates and lipids under demand.

Metabolic States

  • The prandial or fed state is characterized by the presence of calories entering circulation.
  • The fasting state is a metabolic state characterized by an absence of calories entering circulation.

Glucose Supply

  • Compromised glucose supply to the brain can have severe consequences, including impaired brain function.

Hormones

  • Insulin promotes storage and efficient use of ingested nutrients.
  • Insulin is a key regulator of food intake and caloric homeostasis.
  • Glucagon is released from the pancreas during the fasting state to stimulate glycogenolysis and glucose release.
  • Leptin is an anabolic peptide that increases food intake.
  • Ghrelin is a catabolic peptide that decreases food intake and is released from ghrelin cells of the stomach, increasing during the fasting period.

Glycogenolysis

  • Glycogenolysis is the process by which glycogen is converted to glucose.

Insulin Secretion

  • The cephalic phase of meal-related insulin secretion involves neural anticipation of nutrient intake.
  • The gastrointestinal phase of meal-related insulin secretion involves nutrients absorbed by the intestine signaling the pancreas via circulation.

Gastric Emptying

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) slows the rate of gastric emptying and prolongs gastric distension.

Satiety

  • Peptide YY (PYY) acts as a satiety factor by reaching the brain and binding to hypothalamic receptors.

Glycogen Storage

  • The liver and muscle tissue store the most glycogen.

Lipid Metabolism

  • Lipolysis is the process by which triglycerides are converted to fatty acids and glycerol.

Food Intake Regulation

  • The hypothalamus is the main control center of food intake in the brain.
  • The Dual Center Hypothesis proposes that the hypothalamus has two centers: one that stimulates food intake and one that suppresses it.

Microbiota

  • The microbiota plays a crucial role in relation to the brain and gut, influencing food intake and energy homeostasis.

Health Risks

  • Abdominal fat is associated with increased health risks, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
  • Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher.

Death Rates

  • The top two leading causes of death in the US are cardiovascular disease and cancer, both of which are linked to obesity and metabolic disorders.

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

More Quizzes Like This

Neural Control of Body Functions
40 questions
Neural control and coordination Quiz
10 questions
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser