Proteins

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189 Questions

Which type of amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and must be supplied by the diet?

Indispensable/Essential Amino Acids

What type of bond forms between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of an adjacent amino acid in protein structure?

Peptide bond

What is the term for a molecule composed of 10 or more amino acids and many peptide bonds?

Polypeptide

Which level of protein structure is determined by the orientation of secondary structure through disulfide bridges?

Tertiary

Which environmental factors can alter the structure of a protein?

all of the above

What is the effect of mutation on protein structure?

It alters all levels of protein structure

Which function of proteins involves the production of enzymes, hormones, and carriers?

Formation of essential compounds

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Energy production

What is the primary role of antibodies?

To bind to antigens and eliminate them

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Increased production of glycoalkaloids in potatoes

Which hormones increase the rate of protein synthesis?

Insulin and growth hormone

Which of the following is a fate of the amino group (NH3) during protein metabolism?

Urea production

What is the main function of keto acids during protein metabolism?

Energy production

Which of the following factors affects protein use?

All of the above

What happens to excess urea in the blood?

It is filtered by the kidneys

Which of the following statements about amino acids is true?

Excess protein intake has no connection to cardiovascular disease

What is homocysteine?

A type of amino acid

What is the connection between protein intake and osteoporosis?

Protein intake increases calcium excretion

What is the most widespread nutrition problem in the world?

Protein-energy malnutrition

Which of the following conditions can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Severe energy deficiency

Which of the following is a characteristic of a complete protein?

Contains all 9 essential amino acids

Which amino acid is most likely to be limiting in an incomplete protein?

Lysine

What is the measure of the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen loss?

Nitrogen balance

Which of the following is true about the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein?

The RDA for protein may not be the optimal protein intake for older adults.

What is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman according to the text?

55 g/day

Which of the following is associated with protein intake above 35% of total energy intake?

Increased risk of obesity

What is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for power/strength athletes according to the text?

2.0 g/kg

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of dispensable/non-essential amino acids?

They must be supplied by the diet

Which of the following is a characteristic of polypeptides?

They have a total of 10 or more amino acid residues

What is the term for a molecule composed of 2 amino acid residues?

Dipeptide

Which of the following factors can lead to denaturation of proteins?

All of the above

Which of the following is an example of a mutation that can alter the structure of a protein?

Alterations in base sequence of genes

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Buffering

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

Which of the following is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Dietary intake

According to the text, what is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman?

55 g/day

Which of the following conditions can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Starvation

Which of the following environmental factors can alter the structure of a protein?

Temperature

Which of the following conditions can lead to a negative nitrogen balance?

Severe energy deficiency

What is the measure of the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen loss?

Nitrogen balance

What is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman according to the text?

82 grams

Which of the following factors affects protein use?

Physical trauma

Which of the following compounds is produced when Acetyl CoA levels become elevated?

Ketone bodies

What happens to excess urea in the blood?

It is excreted by the kidneys

Which of the following factors can affect protein use?

All of the above

What is the primary role of the liver in protein metabolism?

All of the above

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Energy production

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Fluid retention and edema

Which of the following is a fate of the amino group (NH3) during protein metabolism?

Conversion to urea and excretion in urine

Which of the following is a characteristic of a complete protein?

Contains all essential amino acids in adequate amounts

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excess protein intake?

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease

What is the connection between protein intake and calcium loss in the body?

High protein intake leads to increased calcium excretion

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

Which of the following is true about the structure of amino acids?

Amino acids contain an amino group (NH3+), a carboxyl group (COOH), and a side chain.

Which of the following is an example of a conditionally indispensable amino acid?

Cysteine

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To join amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Source of Energy and Glucose

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Increased risk of infection

Which of the following is true about the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein?

It varies depending on age, sex, and activity level

Which type of amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and must be supplied by the diet?

Essential amino acids

Which of the following is a consequence of denaturation of proteins?

Loss of tertiary structure

Which of the following is NOT a factor that can lead to denaturation of proteins?

Changes in protein sequence

Which of the following is the primary factor affecting protein turnover in the body?

Dietary protein intake

Which of the following is the main function of tryptophan in the body?

Precursor to niacin

Which of the following is a fate of the amino group (NH3) during protein metabolism?

Production of urea

What is the primary role of the liver in protein metabolism?

Production of urea

What is the main function of keto acids during protein metabolism?

Energy production

Which of the following conditions can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Low energy intake

Which of the following is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 125 lbs woman according to the text?

45 g/day

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Physical activity level

What is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for power/strength athletes according to the text?

1.2 - 1.7 g/kg

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Obesity

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of obesity

What is the primary role of antibodies?

To fight against foreign substances in the body

Which of the following is a characteristic of polypeptides?

They have a three-dimensional structure

What is the connection between protein intake and osteoporosis?

High protein intake increases the risk of osteoporosis

Which of the following conditions can lead to a positive nitrogen balance?

Infection

What is the formula to calculate nitrogen balance for an individual?

NB = 24 hour protein intake (grams)/6.25 + 4 g

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of negative nitrogen balance?

Increased protein intake

Which of the following is a characteristic of a complete protein?

Contains all 9 essential amino acids

Which of the following is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To join the amino group of one AA to the carboxyl group of another AA

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of polypeptides?

They determine the function of the protein

Which of the following is an example of a conditionally indispensable amino acid?

Tyrosine

Which of the following factors can lead to denaturation of proteins?

All of the above

Which of the following is a consequence of negative nitrogen balance?

Decreased muscle mass

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Energy storage

Which of the following is the main function of tryptophan in the body?

Precursor to niacin

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Producing energy

Which of the following conditions can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Starvation

What is the main function of antibodies in the body?

Defending against infections

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Fluid retention and edema

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Decreased synthesis of liver proteins

What is the primary role of the liver in protein metabolism?

Synthesis of liver proteins

Which of the following factors can affect protein use?

Amino acid pattern

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

Linking amino acids together

Which of the following conditions can lead to a negative nitrogen balance?

Severe energy deficiency

What is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman according to the text?

65 grams

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To link amino acids

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Muscle wasting

Which of the following is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman according to the text?

55 g/day

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Dietary intake

What is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for power/strength athletes according to the text?

1.2 - 1.7 g/kg

What is the connection between protein intake and osteoporosis?

Higher protein intake increases the risk of osteoporosis

Which of the following is NOT a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease

Which of the following is a potential consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Protein-energy malnutrition

What is the primary function of antibodies?

Defense against foreign substances in the body

Which of the following factors can lead to denaturation of proteins?

Emotional stress

What is the primary fate of keto acids after deamination?

Conversion to fat

Which of the following is a consequence of excess urea in the blood?

Decreased pH

What is the primary function of the liver in protein metabolism?

Synthesis of liver proteins

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Source of energy and glucose

What is the primary role of the liver in protein metabolism?

Synthesis of other nitrogen compounds

Which of the following is a consequence of denaturation of proteins?

Loss of biological activity

Which of the following is a characteristic of a complete protein?

Contains all essential amino acids

Which of the following is NOT a primary structure of a protein?

Orientation of secondary structure through disulfide bridges

What is the consequence of denaturation of proteins?

Altered protein structure

Which of the following factors can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Low protein intake

What is the main function of keto acids during protein metabolism?

Energy production

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Nitrogen balance

What is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 125 lbs woman according to the text?

60 grams

What is the measure of the relationship between the amount of nitrogen taken into the body and the amount lost in urine, feces, skin, hair, nails?

Nitrogen balance

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of polypeptides?

Polypeptides contain 10 or more amino acid residues

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

Stabilize protein structure

Which of the following is true about the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein?

The RDA for protein is higher for athletes and pregnant women

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

Homocysteine is a precursor for the synthesis of methionine

Which of the following is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 125 lbs woman according to the text?

~45 g/day

Which of the following is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for power/strength athletes according to the text?

1.8 - 2.0 g/kg

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Obesity

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Cancer

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

It is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

They provide structural stability to proteins

What is the measure of the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen loss?

Nitrogen balance

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Buffering of pH levels

Which of the following is an example of a mutation that can alter the structure of a protein?

Alterations in base sequence of genes

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Availability of amino acids

Which of the following conditions can lead to a positive nitrogen balance?

High protein intake

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of dispensable/non-essential amino acids?

They contain an amino group (NH2+), a carboxyl group (COOH), and a side chain

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To join amino acids and create polypeptides

Which of the following factors can lead to denaturation of proteins?

Changes in temperature and pH

Which of the following is a consequence of excessive protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased urea production

What is the primary fate of the amino group (NH3) during protein metabolism?

Urea production

Which of the following factors can affect protein use according to the text?

Amino acid pattern

What is the main function of keto acids during protein metabolism?

Energy production

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins mentioned in the text?

Source of Energy and Glucose

What is the primary function of the liver in protein metabolism?

Deamination (degradation)

Which of the following is a characteristic of polypeptides?

They have a specific three-dimensional structure

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

Participating in methylation reactions

Which of the following is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for endurance athletes according to the text?

1.2 - 1.4 g/kg

What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein for adults 19+ years according to the text?

10 - 35% of total energy intake

What is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 150 lbs woman according to the text?

~55 g/day

Which of the following is associated with protein intake above 35% of total energy intake according to the text?

All of the above

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of obesity

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Protein metabolism

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

What is the connection between protein intake and osteoporosis?

Protein intake is a risk factor for osteoporosis

What is the equation to calculate nitrogen balance for an individual?

NB = 24 hour protein intake (grams)/6.25 - [24 hr urine urea nitrogen (g) + 4 g]

What conditions can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Severe energy deficiency, immobility, stress, injury, burns, infection

What is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for power/strength athletes according to the text?

1.2-2.0 grams/kg

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To facilitate protein synthesis

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of essential amino acids?

They can be synthesized in the body

What is the primary function of peptide bonds in protein structure?

To join amino acids together

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excessive protein intake mentioned in the text?

Calcium loss in the body

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Decreased immune response

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a consequence of inadequate protein intake?

Decreased detoxification ability

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

Which of the following factors can lead to denaturation of proteins?

High temperature

Which of the following is a consequence of denaturation of proteins?

Loss of protein function

What is the primary function of the liver in protein metabolism?

Breakdown of proteins into amino acids

Which of the following is a characteristic of polypeptides?

Formed by peptide bonds between amino acids

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

Conversion to other amino acids

Which of the following is NOT a function of urea mentioned in the text?

Urea is used as a source of energy in the body.

Which of the following is a consequence of excessive protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of kidney damage

What is the primary function of transamination in protein metabolism?

To convert amino acids into keto acids

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Decreased muscle mass and strength

According to the text, what is the recommended daily amount of protein in grams for a 125 lbs woman?

45 g/day

What is the recommended protein intake in grams per kilogram of body weight for endurance athletes according to the text?

1.20 - 1.40 g/kg

Which of the following is NOT a potential consequence of inadequate protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of cancer

What is the equation to calculate nitrogen balance for an individual?

Nitrogen intake - Nitrogen loss

Which of the following factors can lead to negative nitrogen balance?

Severe energy deficiency

What is the formula to calculate nitrogen balance for an individual?

NB = 24 hour protein intake (grams)/6.25 – [24 hr urine urea nitrogen (g)* + 4 g**]

Which of the following is a consequence of negative nitrogen balance?

Muscle wasting and weight loss

What is the primary role of the liver in protein metabolism?

Synthesis of plasma proteins

Which of the following is NOT a potential consequence of excess protein intake mentioned in the text?

Increased risk of osteoporosis

What is the primary role of homocysteine in the body?

To act as an independent risk factor for CVD

What is the primary factor affecting protein use?

Protein quality

What is the measure of the relationship between the amount of nitrogen taken into the body and the amount lost in urine, feces, skin, hair, and nails?

Nitrogen balance

Protein Recommendations and the Ongoing Debate: Test your knowledge on the recommended daily protein intake, the concerns for older adults, and the limitations of current studies. Explore the effects of dietary protein on muscle health and everyday tasks. Find out if the current RDA for protein adequately meets our needs.

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