Race and Ethnicity

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What is race?

A social construct based on biological features

What is the conflict regarding race?

Whether it should be defined or not

What is racialization?

The process through which understanding of race is used to classify individuals

Has racialization occurred only outside of Europe?

No, it has occurred within Europe as well

What is ethnicity?

A form of social identity related to descent and cultural differences

What is the relationship between race and ethnicity?

Two individuals may share the same race and be of different ethnicities & vice versa

What differentiates ethnic groups?

Language, religion, ancestry, styles of dress, adornment

What is the history of ethnicity compared to race?

Ethnicity has a longer history than race

What is Banton's view on race?

Race is imbedded in institutions and cannot be changed

What is the process of racialization used for?

To classify individuals

Are racial differences innate?

No, they are learned

What is the relationship between racial distinction and inequality?

Racial distinction serves to reproduce patterns of power and inequality

What are some factors that differentiate ethnic groups?

Language, religion, and ancestry

What is prejudice?

Preconceived ideas about an individual or group

What is displacement?

When feelings of hostility or anger are directed against objects that are not the real origin of those feelings

What is the melting pot model of ethnic integration?

The idea that ethnic groups should assimilate into the dominant culture

What is the Atlantic Slave Trade?

A form of coercive labor

What is scapegoating?

Blaming an individual or social group for perceived wrongs that arise from socio-economic change

What is the conflict regarding race?

Those who believe race should be abandoned as an ideological construct and those who recognize its real-world effects

What is the definition of minority ethnic groups?

Ethnic groups that are not necessarily in a numerical minority but face discrimination

What is race according to sociologists and governments?

A social construct based on biological features

What is racialization?

The process through which race is used to classify individuals

What is ethnicity?

A form of social identity related to descent and cultural differences

What differentiates ethnic groups?

Language, religion, ancestry, styles of dress, and adornment

What is institutional racism?

The collective failure of organizations to provide services to people because of their color, culture, or ethnic origin

What is prejudice?

Preconceived ideas about an individual or group

What are stereotypes?

Fixed and inflexible characterizations of a group of people based on little or no evidence

What is displacement?

When feelings of hostility or anger are directed against objects that are not the real origin of those feelings

What is scapegoating?

Blaming an individual or social group for perceived wrongs that arise from socio-economic change

What are the models of ethnic integration?

Resource allocation, assimilation, melting pot, cultural pluralism, and multiculturalism

What is the significance of ethnic diversity?

It can greatly enrich societies but can also be fragile

What is the definition of assimilation?

The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the former adopts the values and norms of the dominant culture

What is the definition of ethnocentrism?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own

What is the definition of multiculturalism?

The coexistence of numerous cultures within a given society

What is the definition of closure?

The process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others

What is the definition of critical race theory (CRT)?

A perspective on ethnic relations which begins from the premise that racism is embedded in legal systems and other social institutions and is the normal, everyday experience of many minority ethnic groups

What are the three areas in which racism applies according to the text?

Work, housing, and the criminal justice system

What is the definition of resource allocation?

How different social and material resources are shared out between and employed by social groups or other elements of society

What is the definition of melting pot?

A model of migration based on the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns, with flourishing, diverse cultural sources

What is the definition of cultural pluralism?

The coexistence of numerous cultures within a given society

What is the definition of ethnocentrism according to the text?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own

What is the definition of closure according to the text?

The process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others

What is the definition of critical race theory (CRT) according to the text?

A perspective on ethnic relations which begins from the premise that racism is embedded in legal systems and other social institutions and is the normal, everyday experience of many minority ethnic groups

What is the definition of assimilation?

The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the former adopts the values and norms of the dominant culture

What is the definition of closure?

The process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others

What is the definition of ethnocentrism?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own

What is the definition of multiculturalism?

Adoption by the state of a policy encouraging and facilitating cultural pluralism, which allows all ethnic groups to share equally in economic and political life

What is the definition of critical race theory (CRT)?

A perspective on ethnic relations which begins from the premise that racism is embedded in legal systems and other social institutions and is the normal, everyday experience of many minority ethnic groups

What is the definition of resource allocation?

How different social and material resources are shared out between and employed by social groups or other elements of society

What is the definition of melting pot?

A model of migration based on the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns, with flourishing, diverse cultural sources

What is the definition of cultural pluralism?

The coexistence of numerous cultures within a given society

What is the area where racism applies according to studies?

Work, housing, and the criminal justice

What is the definition of closure in relation to ethnic relations?

The process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others

What is the definition of differential racialization?

A perspective on ethnic relations which begins from the premise that racism is embedded in legal systems and other social institutions and is the normal, everyday experience of many minority ethnic groups

What is the definition of ethnocentrism in relation to other cultures?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own

What is the definition of assimilation?

The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the former adopts the values and norms of the dominant culture.

What is the difference between cultural pluralism and multiculturalism?

Cultural pluralism refers to the coexistence of numerous cultures within a given society, while multiculturalism refers to the assimilation of minority groups into the dominant culture.

What is the Melting Pot model of migration?

A model of migration based on the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns, with flourishing, diverse cultural sources.

What is Critical Race Theory (CRT)?

A perspective on ethnic relations which begins from the premise that racism is embedded in legal systems and other social institutions and is the normal, everyday experience of many minority ethnic groups.

What is ethnocentrism?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own.

What is closure in the context of ethnic relations?

The process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others.

What are exclusion devices?

Devices that sharpen the divisions between one ethnic group and another.

What are the three areas in which racism applies according to studies?

Work, housing, and the criminal justice system.

What is the definition of resource allocation?

How different social and material resources are shared out between and employed by social groups or other elements of society.

What is the difference between cultural pluralism and closure?

Cultural pluralism refers to the coexistence of numerous cultures within a given society, while closure refers to the process whereby groups maintain boundaries separating themselves from others.

What is the difference between assimilation and multiculturalism?

Assimilation refers to the process in which a minority group adopts the values and norms of the dominant culture, while multiculturalism refers to the adoption by the state of a policy encouraging and facilitating cultural pluralism.

What is the definition of ethnocentrism?

Understanding the ideas or practices of another culture in terms of one’s own.

Study Notes

Understanding Race, Ethnicity, and Diversity

  • Race is a social construct based on biological features and has been defined multiple times by sociologists and governments.
  • There is a conflict between those who believe race should be abandoned as an ideological construct and those who recognize its real-world effects.
  • Racialization is the process through which race is used to classify individuals, and it is a determinant of stratification.
  • Ethnicity is a form of social identity related to descent and cultural differences and becomes active in certain social contexts.
  • Ethnic groups are differentiated by language, religion, ancestry, styles of dress, and adornment, and ethnicity is perceived as central or irrelevant in social unrest or conflict.
  • Colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade are examples of coercive labor and serfdom, and they have contributed to the development of racism and ethnicity.
  • Minority ethnic groups are not necessarily in a numerical minority and usually face disadvantage from the majority.
  • Racism is the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited features, often skin color, and institutional racism is the collective failure of organizations to provide services to people because of their color, culture, or ethnic origin.
  • Prejudice is preconceived ideas about an individual or group, and stereotypes are fixed and inflexible characterizations of a group of people based on little or no evidence.
  • Displacement is when feelings of hostility or anger are directed against objects that are not the real origin of those feelings, and scapegoating is blaming an individual or social group for perceived wrongs that arise from socio-economic change.
  • Models of ethnic integration include resource allocation, assimilation, melting pot, cultural pluralism, and multiculturalism.
  • Ethnic diversity can greatly enrich societies, but it can also be fragile, especially in the face of internal upheaval or external threat.

Understanding Race, Ethnicity, and Diversity

  • Race is a social construct based on biological features and has been defined multiple times by sociologists and governments.
  • There is a conflict between those who believe race should be abandoned as an ideological construct and those who recognize its real-world effects.
  • Racialization is the process through which race is used to classify individuals, and it is a determinant of stratification.
  • Ethnicity is a form of social identity related to descent and cultural differences and becomes active in certain social contexts.
  • Ethnic groups are differentiated by language, religion, ancestry, styles of dress, and adornment, and ethnicity is perceived as central or irrelevant in social unrest or conflict.
  • Colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade are examples of coercive labor and serfdom, and they have contributed to the development of racism and ethnicity.
  • Minority ethnic groups are not necessarily in a numerical minority and usually face disadvantage from the majority.
  • Racism is the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited features, often skin color, and institutional racism is the collective failure of organizations to provide services to people because of their color, culture, or ethnic origin.
  • Prejudice is preconceived ideas about an individual or group, and stereotypes are fixed and inflexible characterizations of a group of people based on little or no evidence.
  • Displacement is when feelings of hostility or anger are directed against objects that are not the real origin of those feelings, and scapegoating is blaming an individual or social group for perceived wrongs that arise from socio-economic change.
  • Models of ethnic integration include resource allocation, assimilation, melting pot, cultural pluralism, and multiculturalism.
  • Ethnic diversity can greatly enrich societies, but it can also be fragile, especially in the face of internal upheaval or external threat.

Challenge your knowledge on the concept of race with this informative quiz! Explore the various definitions of race and its relationship with biology, society, and government classifications. Test your understanding of the ongoing debate over defining race and its impact on society. Become more aware of this complex and controversial topic by taking this quiz.

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