The Adrenal Glands and Stress Response

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What are the two portions that make up the adrenal gland?

The adrenal gland is composed of the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.

What are the two hormones produced by the adrenal medulla?

The two hormones produced by the adrenal medulla are epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine.

What are the two major types of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?

The two major types of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex are glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisone) and mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone).

What are the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on the body during stress?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine both play a role in the body's immediate response to stress. Epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and increased blood flow to skeletal muscles and the heart, while norepinephrine has a greater influence on peripheral vasoconstriction. Together, they result in a rise in blood pressure.

What are the consequences of over secretion and under secretion of adrenal hormones?

Over secretion of adrenal hormones can lead to hypertension and aggressive behavior in routine life. Under secretion, on the other hand, causes a failure to combat emergency situations.

What are the functions of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex?

Glucocorticoids, such as cortisone, help regulate blood glucose levels, while mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, help regulate mineral levels in the blood. Both are produced under the influence of ACTH.

Test your knowledge of the adrenal glands and their role in the body's stress response. Explore the production and release of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine, and their connection to the sympathetic nervous system.

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