STS 100 - Science, Technology, and Society Historical Timeline

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Who published the first 2 laws of planetary motion in 1609?

Johannes Kepler

Which scientist was known for discovering "Tycho Star" and proposing the Geo-Heliocentric theory?

Tycho Brahe

Who constructed the first powerful single-lens microscope and made extensive biological observations?

Antoine van Leeuwenhoek

Who invented the mercury barometer?

Robert Boyle

Which scientist is known for outlining a new system of logic based on reduction in the book 'Novum Organum'?

Francis Bacon

Who is credited with introducing the term 'Scientific Revolution'?

Isaac Newton

Who developed a vaccine for rabies and disproved spontaneous generation theory?

Charles Darwin

Who proposed natural selection as an explanation of evolution?

Charles Darwin

Who developed the Mendelian Principles of Heredity using pea plants?

Gregor Mendel

What important scientific discovery during the Industrial Revolution profited from new methods like penicillin and insulin?

Radioactive isotopes

Who introduced the microscope that paved the way for the establishment of the cell theory?

Janssen team

Which scientist succeeded in perfecting the steam engine in 1778 incorporating radical improvements?

James Watt & Matthew Boulton

Which ancient civilization is known as the 'rubber people'?


Where did the Olmecs construct permanent city-temple complexes?

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan

What was the principal architectural structure found in the La Venta ruins?

Vast clay pyramid

What evidence shows that the Olmecs practiced human sacrifice and cannibalism?

Historical records and artifacts

Which materials did the Olmecs cultivate?

Cacao, rubber, and salt

In which present-day states did the Olmec civilization thrive?

Veracruz and Tabasco

Who is regarded as the 'inventor of the computer'?

Konrad Zuse

Who is often referred to as the 'Father of Computers'?

Charles Babbage

In what year did Willis Carrier invent the first modern air-conditioner?


What was Nikola Tesla's contribution related to computers?

Toyed with the idea of a 'world wireless system'

Which technology uses a powerful magnetic field and a computer to produce detailed pictures of internal body structures?


Where did attempts to control indoor temperatures using cool water circulating through walls begin?


Who is credited with inventing the first actual fiber optical table in 1952?

Narinder Singh Kapany

Which notable invention from the 20th century involves using cell-free fetal DNA testing?

Cancer Nanotherapy

What did Alexander Graham Bell create in 1880 that was considered a precursor to fiber-optic communications?

Wireless Telephone (Photophone)

Which physicist invented the first actual fiber optical table based on experiments by John Tyndall?

Narinder Singh Kapany

Which telecommunications use fiber-optic cables to transmit signals?

Cable Television

Study Notes

Optical Fiber

  • In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell created a precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone.
  • In 1952, Narinder Singh Kapany invented the first fiber optical table, inspired by John Tyndall's experiments.

20th Century Inventions

  • Gene Therapy
  • 3D Metal Printing
  • Artificial Embryos
  • Cell-free Fetal DNA Testing
  • Cancer Nanotherapy

Pre-Columbian Times

  • Olmecs constructed permanent city-temple complexes at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes.
  • The principal architectural structure in La Venta ruins was the vast clay pyramid decorated with elaborate carvings.
  • Olmecs cultivated cacao, rubber, and salt, and manufactured chocolate drinks.
  • They used an elaborate water and drainage system.
  • The Olmec civilization was the first great Mesoamerican civilization, thriving along the Southern Gulf coast of Mexico.
  • The name "Olmec" means "rubber people" in Nahuatl, referring to the ancient practice of extracting latex from Castilla elastic, a rubber tree.
  • Evidence shows that the Olmecs practiced human sacrifice and cannibalism.

The Scientific Revolution

  • Nicolaus Copernicus published "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" in 1543, marking the beginning of the scientific revolution.
  • Tycho Brahe was known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
  • Johannes Kepler published the first two of his three laws of planetary motion in 1609.
  • Galileo Galilei invented the telescope and demonstrated that a projectile follows a parabolic path.
  • Sir Francis Bacon published "Novum Organum" in 1620, outlining a new system of logic.
  • René Descartes published "Discourse on the Method" in 1637, establishing the scientific method.
  • Antoine van Leeuwenhoek constructed a powerful single lens microscope and made extensive observations in biology.

The Industrial Revolution

  • Louis Pasteur pioneered pasteurization and proposed the germ theory of disease.
  • Charles Darwin proposed natural selection as an explanation of evolution, publishing "On the Origin of Species" in 1859.
  • James Watt and Matthew Boulton perfected the steam engine in 1778.
  • Gregor Mendel developed the Mendelian Principles of Heredity.

Scientific Developments

  • Modern medicine: new methods of treatment from penicillin, insulin, and other drugs to pacemakers and implantation of artificial or donated organs.
  • Radioactive isotopes: used as tracers in complicated chemical and biochemical reactions and applied in geological dating.
  • Astronomy: introduced the microscope, paving the way for the establishment of the cell theory and study of minute things.
  • Computers: electronic machines that accept information, store it, process it, and return results.
  • Internet: a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities.
  • Air conditioning system: started in ancient Rome and was modernized by Willis Carrier in 1902.

Explore the historical timeline of science, technology, and society from Pre-Columbian times to the 20th century. Topics include advancements during the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and societal impacts.

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