Self-Concept and Personal Identity Quiz

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18 Questions

What is the process of comparing oneself with others in order to evaluate one’s own abilities and opinions called?

Social Comparison

When an individual compares themselves to others who are better than them, it is known as:

Upward Social Comparison

Which theory provides a framework for understanding how individuals achieve understanding about themselves through group membership?

Social Identity Theory

What is the term for the process where individuals feel secure due to group membership and believe they won't face discrimination from an out-group?

Attachment Process

Which factor strongly influences adolescents' perception of themselves when they encounter their physical selves face-to-face?

Cultural Concept of Beauty

The Looking-Glass Self Theory is closely associated with which sociologist or psychologist?


What does self-concept refer to?

The sum total of all beliefs that people have about themselves

How does personal identity develop?

Through a person's choices and beliefs

Who proposed the Looking-glass Self Theory?

Charles Horton Cooley

According to Bowlby (1969), what influences a person's value and lovability perception?

Interaction with mothers or caregivers

How does Social Comparison contribute to understanding oneself?

By comparing one's traits, abilities, or opinions to others

What is the main focus of maintaining, regulating, and expanding the self in interpersonal relationships?

Expanding personal identity through social interactions

How does the self-perception theory explain the understanding of one's internal state?

By observing their own behavior

What does the cognitive-behavioral perspective focus on in understanding body image?

Perceptual, cognitive, and affective aspects

Which factor contributes to the perception of the physical self through introspection and self-reflection?

Personal factors

According to the feminist perspective, why do women experience dissatisfaction with their bodies?

Result of social phenomenon

What does the self-concept refer to in understanding personal identity?

Internal state

How does the feminist perspective view the distorted ways in which individuals experience their bodies?

As a result of social phenomenon

Study Notes

Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

  • Focuses on perceptual, cognitive, and affective aspects of the body
  • Makes multiple distinctions to facilitate precise conceptual and operational definitions of body-image related variables

Feminist Perspective

  • Relies on the social construction of the body
  • Individuals, especially women, experience their bodies in distorted ways
  • Women's dissatisfaction with their bodies is a systematic social phenomenon rather than a result of individual pathology (McKinley, 2002)

Factors Affecting Perception of the Physical Self

Personal Factors

  • Introspection and Self-reflection: looking inward to achieve self-knowledge
  • Self-Perception Theory: people infer their inner states by observing their own behavior
  • Physical perception: includes all aspects of a person's perception of their physical self
  • Self-concept: cognitive representation of self-knowledge, including beliefs, characteristics, social roles, values, goals, and fears
  • Personal Identity: concept of oneself developed over time, including aspects of life and choices made

Social Factors

  • Attachment Process and Social Appraisal: learning about one's value and lovability through caregiver interactions
  • Maintaining, Regulating, and Expanding the Self in Interpersonal Relationships
  • The Looking-glass Self Theory: self-concept grows from society's interpersonal interactions and the perception of others
  • Social Comparison: understanding oneself by comparing traits, abilities, or opinions to that of others (Upward and Downward social comparison)

The Impact of Culture on Body Image and Self-Esteem

  • Culture influences adolescents' body image and self-esteem, particularly through beauty standards
  • Self-concept is influenced by cultural conceptualization of beauty

Test your knowledge about self-concept and personal identity based on Hewstone, et al., (2015) definition. Explore the cognitive representation of self-knowledge and individual's perception of physical appearance.

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