Scientific Theory Building and Psychological Variables Quiz

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207 Questions

What type of research involves measuring associations between events?

Correlational research

Which ethical principle pertains to standards in animal research?

Animal welfare

What is a potential threat to the validity of research that involves the influence of the experimenter's expectations on the participants?

Experimenter expectancy effects

What did the bystander effect demonstrate in the case of Kitty Genovese's attack?

The diffusion of responsibility led to lack of assistance

What do psychologists use operational definitions for?

To define variables in terms of specific procedures used to produce or measure them

Why is measurement in psychology considered challenging?

Due to the varied and complex processes studied

What do self-report measures ask individuals to report on?

Their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behavior

How does the accuracy of self-report measures depend?

On people's ability and willingness to respond honestly

What can yield a more complete picture in measuring stress and academic performance?

Incorporating multiple levels of analysis

What does the Over-Claiming Questionnaire (OCQ) measure?

The degree of a respondent's social desirability bias

When is unobtrusive measurement used?

When research questions focus on sensitive topics

How can researchers minimize social desirability bias in self-report measures?

By guaranteeing anonymity and confidentiality

What can distort participants' self-reports in psychological research?

Social desirability bias

What do psychologists measure behavior using?

Self-report, physiological, and behavioral measures

What is the purpose of operational definitions in psychology?

To translate abstract concepts into observable and measurable terms

What is the role of social desirability bias in self-report measures?

To potentially distort participants' responses

What is the

Option A

What are good characteristics of a scientific theory?

Integrates predictions, is testable, generates new hypotheses, and is not absolute truth

What must abstract concepts like 'self-esteem' and 'intelligence' be for scientific study?

Measurable

What is the purpose of theory building through prediction and control?

Satisfies curiosity, increases knowledge, and generates principles

What is the advantage of prediction based on understanding over prediction based on correlation?

Provides advantages in generating principles and increasing knowledge

What happens to theories even with successful predictions?

They are never regarded as absolute truth and may be displaced by newer, more accurate ones

What is the preferred characteristic of simpler theories?

They are preferred if they can explain and predict phenomena equally well

What do scientists favor over common sense hindsight reasoning for understanding behavior?

Direct prediction, control, and theory building

What are variables in psychology?

Characteristics that can vary and may represent abstract concepts

Why must variables be clearly defined in scientific studies?

To ensure consistent measurement across different studies

What is the purpose of theory building in science?

To generate new hypotheses and predictions

What are good theories in science expected to do?

Organize information, be testable, and generate new hypotheses and predictions

What is the nature of successful scientific theories?

They are never regarded as absolute truth and may be displaced by newer, more accurate ones

What distinguishes science from other approaches to learning about the world?

The scientific method guided by certain principles

What are the driving forces behind scientific inquiry?

Curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness

What did Darley and Latané reason about the bystanders in the Kitty Genovese case?

The presence of multiple bystanders produced a diffusion of responsibility

What did Darley and Latané believe about the media's 'bystander apathy' explanation?

They were skeptical of it

What did Darley and Latané's research aim to investigate?

Why people sometimes fail to help a victim in need during an emergency

What was the hypothesis proposed by Darley and Latané regarding the presence of multiple bystanders?

A diffusion of responsibility may have occurred

What distinguishes science from other approaches to learning about the world?

The scientific method guided by certain principles

What are the driving forces behind scientific inquiry?

Curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness

What did Darley and Latané reason about the bystanders in the Kitty Genovese case?

The presence of multiple bystanders produced a diffusion of responsibility

What did Darley and Latané believe about the media's 'bystander apathy' explanation?

They were skeptical of it

What did Darley and Latané's research aim to investigate?

Why people sometimes fail to help a victim in need during an emergency

What was the hypothesis proposed by Darley and Latané regarding the presence of multiple bystanders?

A diffusion of responsibility may have occurred

What was the central role played by the diffusion of responsibility in Darley and Latané's research?

It led to the decreased likelihood of bystander intervention during emergencies.

What did Darley and Latané aim to understand through their investigation into bystander intervention?

Why people sometimes fail to help a victim in need during an emergency.

What did the case of Kitty Genovese's murder and the subsequent bystander apathy lead to?

A deeper exploration of the factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of bystander intervention during emergencies.

What did psychologists take longer to adopt the scientific method for in behavioral science?

Intangible subject matter compared to physical sciences.

What is the foundation of psychological science, guiding the process of asking and answering questions about the universe?

The scientific method involving curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness.

What did the employees who wanted to call 911 and assist Katerine in the parking lot in Montreal face?

Resistance from their supervisor who told them not to do so.

What did Darley and Latané's research illustrate about the scientific process?

The basic steps of the scientific process, from identifying a question of interest to testing hypotheses by conducting research.

What drove scientific inquiry in the case of Darley and Latané's investigation into bystander intervention?

Scientific attitudes such as curiosity and skepticism.

What did the diffusion of responsibility lead to in the research conducted by Darley and Latané?

Decreased personal responsibility for intervening in the presence of multiple bystanders.

What did the scientific process involve according to the text?

A continuous interplay between observing and explaining events, sparking curiosity and questions of interest that drive scientific inquiry.

What is the approximate number of cells interlinked through connections in the brain?

Trillions

Which part of the nervous system contains the brain?

Central Nervous System

What is Brad Pitt unable to remember about people?

Their facial features

What is the main characteristic of the brain, as described by James Watson?

Complexity

What is the threshold for action potentials according to the all-or-none law?

250 millivolts

Which type of anesthetics can block sodium channels and prevent pain impulses from being transmitted by neurons?

Local anesthetics

What contributes to rapid nerve impulse conduction by allowing electrical conduction to skip from node to node?

Myelin sheath

What disrupts nerve impulse timing and can lead to uncoordinated movements and paralysis?

Myelin sheath damage

What is the role of synaptic transmission in the nervous system?

Release of chemical neurotransmitters

What did Otto Loewi's experiments demonstrate about neural communication?

Release of chemical neurotransmitters

What do neurotransmitters produced by neurons carry across the synapse to affect other neurons?

Messages

What limits the rate of nerve impulses, placing an upper limit of about 300 impulses per second in humans?

Absolute refractory period

Where is the myelin sheath most commonly found?

Higher animals

What do drugs that alter the transit of sodium and potassium ions highlight the importance of for proper neuron function?

Ion balance

What type of period places an upper limit on the rate of nerve impulses?

Absolute refractory period

What does the myelin sheath contribute to in infants?

Muscular coordination

What is the function of dendrites in neurons?

Receive messages from neighboring neurons

What is the role of glial cells in the nervous system?

Hold neurons in place and form myelin sheath

What is the approximate ratio of glial cells to neurons in the nervous system?

10:1

What is the fundamental process involved in nerve activation?

Electrical resting potential, depolarization, and repolarization

What is the primary mode of communication between neurons, muscles, and glands?

Electrical impulses

What is the role of myelin sheath in neurons?

Increase the speed of electrical impulse conduction

What is the primary function of axons in neurons?

Conduct electrical impulses away from the cell body

What is the approximate number of neurons in the brain at birth?

100 billion

What is the primary role of glial cells in modulating communication among neurons?

Hold neurons in place and form myelin sheath

What is the primary function of glial cells in protecting the brain?

Through the blood-brain barrier

What is the primary role of neurons in generating communication signals?

Generate electricity and release chemicals

What is the primary function of myelin sheath in the nervous system?

Increase the speed of electrical impulse conduction

What is the process of chemical communication in neurotransmission?

Synthesis, storage, release, binding, and deactivation

Where does the synthesis of neurotransmitters occur?

Inside neurons

What triggers the release of neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic space?

Action potential

What happens when neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane?

Excitatory or inhibitory effects

What is the role of receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane?

They have specific shapes to fit neurotransmitter molecules

What is the effect of excitatory transmitters on the neuron's membrane?

Depolarize membrane, increasing likelihood of action potential

How do inhibitory transmitters affect the neuron's membrane?

Hyperpolarize membrane, decreasing likelihood of action potential

What is the purpose of neurotransmitter deactivation?

To shut off neurotransmitter's activation or inhibition of the neuron

How does inhibition contribute to neural activity?

It fine-tunes neural activity and prevents uncoordinated discharge

What is the role of balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes in the nervous system?

Crucial for proper nervous system function

How does neurotransmitter deactivation occur?

Through breakdown by chemicals or reuptake

What is the significance of the specific shapes of receptor sites?

They fit neurotransmitter molecules

What is the approximate resting potential of a neuron?

70 millivolts

What is the key mechanism for the action potential in neurons?

Action of sodium and potassium ion channels

What is the membrane voltage during the action potential?

140 millivolts to 270 millivolts

What is the primary cause of depolarization in a neuron?

Influx of positively charged sodium ions

How is the resting potential of a neuron restored?

Through the action of sodium-potassium pumps

What is the approximate threshold for action potentials according to the all-or-none law?

50 millivolts

What is the primary role of the myelin sheath in the nervous system?

To contribute to rapid nerve impulse conduction

What is the process of creating a nerve impulse in a neuron primarily involve?

Exchange of electrically charged atoms

What is the primary role of the sodium-potassium pumps in a neuron?

To restore the resting potential

What is the primary function of axons in neurons?

To generate nerve impulses

What is the approximate ratio of glial cells to neurons in the nervous system?

10:1

What is the primary cause of the sudden reversal in the neuron’s membrane voltage during an action potential?

Influx of positively charged sodium ions

Which theory of motivation emphasizes the role of physiological needs and drives?

Drive theory

What is the primary focus of achievement goal theory in the context of motivation?

The different goals individuals pursue and the impact on motivation

Which perspective on motivation emphasizes the influence of unconscious desires and self-fulfillment?

Psychodynamic and humanistic theories

What is the primary focus of the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

The sequence of physiological arousal and emotional experience

What does Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs range from?

Basic to self-actualization

What does self-determination theory focus on as psychological needs?

Competence, autonomy, and relatedness

What does hunger regulation involve?

Biological, psychological, and environmental factors

What percentage of energy does metabolism use for basal metabolism?

Two-thirds

What do short-term signals induce in hunger regulation?

Hunger and satiety

According to drive theory, what is the ultimate goal of motivated behavior?

Reducing drives

What do long-term signals monitor in hunger regulation?

Body fat

Which model of motivation is applied to regulate hunger, thirst, body temperature, weight, and sleep?

Homeostatic models

What is the concept of a set point in hunger regulation?

An internal physiological standard for regulating body weight

What do incentive theories of motivation focus on?

External stimuli that motivate behavior

What do physiological signals for hunger include?

Stomach contractions and glucose concentration monitoring

To what has incentive theories been applied in the study of drug abuse?

Seeking and administering a drug for its positive incentive value

What do expectancy theories of motivation propose?

Jointly determining behavior by expectation and goal value

What do hunger pangs not depend on?

An empty stomach

What does hunger regulation involve?

Biological, psychological, and environmental factors

What do cognitive theorists distinguish between in terms of motivation?

Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation

What does the overjustification hypothesis suggest?

Giving people extrinsic rewards for intrinsically enjoyable activities may reduce intrinsic motivation

What is the primary cause of hunger pangs?

Other hunger triggers

What does the self-determination theory focus on as psychological needs?

Competence, autonomy, and relatedness

What does Maslow's hierarchy of needs distinguish between?

Deficiency needs and growth needs

What does Maslow propose in his need hierarchy?

Deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top

What distinguishes cognitive theorists' perspective on motivation?

The role of cognitive processes in motivation

What is the main distinction made by Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

The distinction between deficiency needs and growth needs

What does the overjustification hypothesis warn about?

The potential reduction of intrinsic motivation by extrinsic rewards

Which theory emphasizes the role of unconscious impulses and psychological defenses in shaping behavior?

Freud's psychodynamic theory

Which theory emphasizes three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness?

Self-determination theory

Which theory proposes that needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with need progression and regression based on satisfaction levels?

Maslow's need hierarchy model

Which theory proposes that tissue deficits create drives like hunger?

Drive theories

Which theory has been further developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan in self-determination theory?

Maslow's need hierarchy model

Which theory draws attention to human growth desires and has influenced diverse fields like philosophy, education, and business?

Maslow's need hierarchy model

Which theory emphasizes the concept of 'self-actualization' and has been criticized for being vague?

Maslow's need hierarchy model

Which theory proposes that true relatedness can lead to a sense of freedom, and research supports the independent and additive effects of the three basic needs on positive outcomes?

Self-determination theory

Which theory proposes that needs are arranged in a hierarchy, and critics question whether people might focus on higher-level needs even when lower-level needs are not met?

Maslow's need hierarchy model

Which theory emphasizes the role of unconscious impulses and psychological defenses, but research offers little support for his 'dual-instinct' model?

Freud's psychodynamic theory

Which theory emphasizes the role of unconscious impulses and psychological defenses, and has been criticized for being vague?

Freud's psychodynamic theory

Which theory proposes that motivation is a process influencing behavior direction, vigour, and persistence?

Drive theories

What distinguishes brain fingerprinting from polygraph examinations?

It uses brainwave monitoring to determine if a suspect has details of a crime stored in their brain.

What was instrumental in exonerating Terry Harrington, a convicted murderer serving a life sentence in Iowa?

Brain fingerprinting

What does homeostasis require for regulation of the internal environment?

A sensory mechanism for detecting changes, a response system, and a control center.

Which theory proposes that psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through genes?

Evolutionary psychology

What does Clark Hull's drive theory propose about physiological disruptions to homeostasis?

They produce drives that motivate behavior.

What is the primary focus of expectancy × value theory?

How people respond to incentives based on their expectations and the value they place on the incentive.

What does motivation encompass, influencing goal-directed behavior?

Eating, sexual behavior, thrill-seeking, and affiliation.

What do evolutionary psychologists propose about psychological motives?

They have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through genes.

What is the role of instinct theory in motivating human behavior?

It suggests that instincts motivate much of human behavior.

What is the primary focus of homeostasis in the body?

Maintaining internal physiological equilibrium.

What do evolutionary psychologists propose about psychological motives?

They have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through genes.

What is the primary role of homeostasis in motivating behavior according to Clark Hull's drive theory?

Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives that motivate behavior.

What is the approximate number of cells and connections in the human brain?

100 billion cells and 1 trillion connections

What specific aspect of facial recognition does Brad Pitt struggle with?

Remembering faces

Which part of the brain is implicated in Brad Pitt's difficulty with remembering faces?

Temporal Lobe

What is the analogy used by James Watson to describe the complexity of the brain?

A boundless universe

What is the primary function of glial cells in the nervous system?

Absorbing toxins to protect the brain

What is the role of dendrites in neurons?

Receiving messages from neighboring neurons

What is the approximate ratio of glial cells to neurons in the nervous system?

10:1

What is the function of myelin sheath in neurons?

Insulating and increasing the speed of electrical impulses

What is the primary cause of hunger pangs?

Activation of neurons

What is the process involved in nerve activation?

Depolarization and repolarization

What is the fundamental nature of the electrical activity of neurons?

Generating electricity and releasing chemicals to communicate with other neurons

What is the primary function of axons in neurons?

Conducting electrical impulses away from the cell body

What is the primary role of the blood-brain barrier?

Absorbing toxins to protect the brain

What is the primary function of glial cells in modulating communication among neurons?

Releasing chemicals to modulate communication among neurons

What is the primary purpose of the myelin sheath in the nervous system?

Insulating and increasing the speed of electrical impulses

What is the main function of dendrites in neurons?

Receiving messages from neighboring neurons

What is the primary function of inhibitory transmitters in neurotransmission?

Hyperpolarize the membrane, decreasing likelihood of action potential

What is the role of receptor sites in neurotransmission?

Bind neurotransmitter molecules to the postsynaptic neuron's membrane

How is neurotransmitter deactivation primarily achieved?

By breakdown in the synaptic space

What is the main role of synaptic vesicles in neurotransmission?

Store neurotransmitter molecules

What is the effect of excitatory transmitters on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane?

Depolarize the membrane

What is the crucial balance for proper nervous system function?

Balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes

What is the primary role of action potential in neurotransmission?

Releasing neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic space

What is the primary function of synthesis in neurotransmission?

Producing neurotransmitter molecules inside neurons

What is the primary role of balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes in neurotransmission?

Fine-tuning neural activity and preventing uncoordinated discharge

What is the effect of inhibitory transmitters on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane?

Hyperpolarize the membrane

What is the primary role of neurotransmitter deactivation in neurotransmission?

Shutting off neurotransmitter's activation or inhibition of the neuron

What is the primary function of neurotransmitter binding in neurotransmission?

Affecting the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron

What is the approximate membrane voltage during the action potential in a neuron?

140 millivolts

What contributes to the restoration of the negative resting potential in a neuron?

Flow of positively charged potassium ions out through their channels

What maintains the negative interior of a neuron by pumping out three sodium ions for every two potassium ions pumped into the cell?

Sodium-potassium pumps

What is the approximate resting potential of a neuron?

70 millivolts

What causes depolarization in a neuron?

Influx of positively charged sodium ions

What is the primary cause of the sudden reversal in a neuron’s membrane voltage during the action potential?

Flow of positively charged sodium ions

What is the key mechanism for the action potential in neurons?

Action of sodium and potassium ion channels

What restores the negative resting potential in a neuron after depolarization?

Efflux of positively charged potassium ions

What is the primary role of the sodium-potassium pumps in a neuron?

Maintaining the negative interior by pumping out three sodium ions for every two potassium ions pumped into the cell

What is the primary function of the myelin sheath in the nervous system?

Speeding up the conduction of nerve impulses

What is the primary cause of the resting potential in a neuron?

Uneven distribution of positively and negatively charged ions

What is the process of creating a nerve impulse in a neuron primarily involve?

Exchange of electrically charged atoms called ions

What is the threshold for action potentials according to the all-or-none law?

250 millivolts

What is the primary function of the myelin sheath in the nervous system?

Contributing to rapid nerve impulse conduction

What did Otto Loewi's experiments demonstrate about neural communication?

Neurons release chemicals

What is the rate limit of nerve impulses in humans due to the absolute refractory period?

300 impulses per second

What can local anesthetics like Novocain and Xylocaine block to prevent pain impulses from being transmitted by neurons?

Sodium channels

What contributes to gains in muscular coordination in infants and is most commonly found in the nervous systems of higher animals?

Myelin sheath

What do neurotransmitters produced by neurons carry messages across the synapse to do?

Excite or inhibit the firing of other neurons

What does damage to the myelin sheath, as in multiple sclerosis, disrupt?

Nerve impulse timing

What does the nervous system communicate through?

Synaptic transmission

What is the primary role of the myelin sheath in the nervous system?

Insulating axons

What is the primary function of drugs that alter the transit of sodium and potassium ions?

Decreasing or preventing neural functioning

What does the myelin sheath contribute to in infants?

Muscular coordination gains

Study Notes

Scientific Understanding and Theory Building

  • Scientific process is self-correcting: research supporting hypotheses increases confidence in theories
  • Common sense hindsight reasoning is problematic for understanding behavior as it can offer contradictory explanations
  • Scientists favor direct prediction, control, and theory building over hindsight understanding
  • Good theory characteristics: integrates predictions, is testable, generates new hypotheses, and is not absolute truth
  • Variables in psychology are characteristics that can vary and may represent abstract concepts
  • Abstract concepts like "self-esteem," "stress," and "intelligence" must be measurable for scientific study
  • Variables must be clearly defined to ensure consistent measurement across different studies
  • Theory building through prediction and control satisfies curiosity, increases knowledge, and generates principles
  • Prediction based on understanding has advantages over prediction based on correlation
  • Good theories organize information, are testable, and generate new hypotheses and predictions
  • Simpler theories are preferred if they can explain and predict phenomena equally well
  • Even with successful predictions, theories are never regarded as absolute truth and may be displaced by newer, more accurate ones

Bystander Intervention and Scientific Principles in Psychology

  • In 2001, 17-year-old Katerine was severely beaten and left half-naked in a parking lot in Montreal, where she remained in a coma for hours, ignored by pedestrians and employees working at a nearby call center.
  • The employees who wanted to call 911 and assist Katerine were told not to do so by their supervisor, highlighting the psychological puzzle of bystander intervention.
  • The scientific method, involving curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness, is the foundation of psychological science, guiding the process of asking and answering questions about the universe.
  • Psychologists took longer to adopt the scientific method for behavioral science due to the intangible subject matter compared to the physical sciences.
  • Scientific attitudes, such as curiosity and skepticism, drive scientific inquiry, as seen in the case of two psychology professors, John Darley and Bibb Latané, who investigated bystander apathy after the Kitty Genovese murder.
  • Darley and Latané's research illustrated the basic steps of the scientific process, from identifying a question of interest to testing hypotheses by conducting research.
  • Their investigation into bystander intervention aimed to understand why people sometimes fail to help a victim in need during an emergency, even when there is little or no personal risk.
  • The diffusion of responsibility, where each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening in the presence of multiple bystanders, played a central role in their research.
  • The researchers conducted experiments to test their hypothesis, manipulating the perceived number of bystanders in controlled settings to measure the participants' likelihood of intervening.
  • The case of Kitty Genovese's murder and the subsequent bystander apathy led to a deeper exploration of the factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of bystander intervention during emergencies.
  • The scientific process involves a continuous interplay between observing and explaining events, sparking curiosity and questions of interest that drive scientific inquiry.
  • These principles and methods not only form the foundation of psychological science but also promote critical thinking, which can serve well in many aspects of life.

Neurotransmission Process Overview

  • Process of chemical communication involves synthesis, storage, release, binding, and deactivation
  • Synthesis occurs inside neurons; molecules are stored in synaptic vesicles
  • Action potential triggers vesicles to release molecules into synaptic space
  • Molecules bind to receptor sites on postsynaptic neuron's membrane
  • Receptor sites have specific shapes to fit neurotransmitter molecules
  • Binding of neurotransmitter can have excitatory or inhibitory effects
  • Excitatory transmitters depolarize membrane, increasing likelihood of action potential
  • Inhibitory transmitters hyperpolarize membrane, decreasing likelihood of action potential
  • Balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes is crucial for proper nervous system function
  • Inhibition fine-tunes neural activity and prevents uncoordinated discharge
  • Neurotransmitter deactivation occurs through breakdown by chemicals or reuptake
  • Deactivation shuts off neurotransmitter's activation or inhibition of the neuron

Neuron Action Potential Process

  • Neurons have a resting potential due to an uneven distribution of ions, with the interior being negative compared to the outside
  • A nerve impulse or action potential is produced when the electrical charge of the resting potential reverses due to ion flow in and out through the cell membrane
  • The action potential is a sudden reversal in the neuron’s membrane voltage, during which the membrane voltage momentarily moves from 270 millivolts to 140 millivolts
  • The process of creating a nerve impulse involves the exchange of electrically charged atoms called ions, such as sodium and potassium
  • The key mechanism for the action potential involves the action of sodium and potassium ion channels in the cell membrane
  • When a neuron is stimulated, nearby sodium channels open, allowing positively charged sodium ions to flood into the axon, creating depolarization
  • In response to depolarization, the cell closes its sodium channels and positively charged potassium ions flow out through their channels, restoring the negative resting potential
  • The resting potential is restored through the action of sodium-potassium pumps, which maintain the negative interior by pumping out three sodium ions for every two potassium ions pumped into the cell
  • The process of depolarization that creates graded and action potentials involves the opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels, leading to the flow of ions in and out of the cell
  • The resting potential of a neuron is around 70 millivolts and is caused by the uneven distribution of positively and negatively charged ions, with a greater concentration of positively charged sodium ions outside the cell
  • The action potential, or nerve impulse, spreads to adjacent parts of the neuron’s membrane, causing a chain reaction
  • The process of depolarization and repolarization, involving the flow of sodium and potassium ions, leads to the creation and restoration of the action potential and resting potential, respectively

Understanding Motivation Theories

  • Maslow's need hierarchy model is criticized for being vague, but it draws attention to human growth desires and has influenced diverse fields like philosophy, education, and business.
  • Freud's psychodynamic theory emphasizes the role of unconscious impulses and psychological defenses in shaping behavior, but research offers little support for his "dual-instinct" model.
  • Humanist Abraham Maslow focused on personal growth, introducing the concept of a need hierarchy, which has been further developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan in self-determination theory.
  • Self-determination theory emphasizes three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness, with fulfillment leading to psychological and physical well-being.
  • Maslow's need hierarchy proposes that needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with need progression and regression based on satisfaction levels, but critics question whether people might focus on higher-level needs even when lower-level needs are not met.
  • Relatedness complements autonomy, as true relatedness can lead to a sense of freedom, and research supports the independent and additive effects of the three basic needs on positive outcomes.
  • Motivation is a process influencing behavior direction, vigour, and persistence, with evolutionary psychologists proposing genetically based predispositions, homeostatic models emphasizing equilibrium maintenance, and drive theories suggesting that tissue deficits create drives like hunger.
  • Critics question the validity of Maslow's need hierarchy and the concept of "self-actualization" but recognize its influence and attention to human growth desires.
  • Freud's psychodynamic theory emphasizes the role of unconscious impulses and psychological defenses, but research offers little support for his "dual-instinct" model.
  • Self-determination theory emphasizes three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness, with fulfillment leading to psychological and physical well-being.
  • Maslow's need hierarchy proposes that needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with need progression and regression based on satisfaction levels, but critics question whether people might focus on higher-level needs even when lower-level needs are not met.
  • Relatedness complements autonomy, as true relatedness can lead to a sense of freedom, and research supports the independent and additive effects of the three basic needs on positive outcomes.

Brain Fingerprinting and Motivation Theories

  • "Brain fingerprinting" uses brainwave monitoring to determine if a suspect has details of a crime stored in their brain.
  • Brain fingerprinting was instrumental in exonerating Terry Harrington, a convicted murderer serving a life sentence in Iowa.
  • Unlike polygraph examinations, brain fingerprinting has been ruled admissible in U.S. courts.
  • Motivation encompasses eating, sexual behavior, thrill-seeking, and affiliation, influencing goal-directed behavior.
  • Heredity accounts for differences in motivated behavior, such as the desire for security.
  • Evolutionary psychologists propose that psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through genes.
  • Instinct theory, inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution, suggests that instincts motivate much of human behavior.
  • Homeostasis is a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain.
  • Homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes, a response system, and a control center.
  • According to Clark Hull's drive theory, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives that motivate behavior.
  • Homeostasis can involve learned behaviors to regulate the internal environment.
  • According to expectancy × value theory, people may respond differently to the same incentive based on their expectations and the value they place on the incentive.

Neural Communication and Transmission

  • Action potential is generated through the opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels, leading to a rapid flow of ions in and out of the neuron.
  • The all-or-none law governs action potentials, which occur at a uniform and maximum intensity, or not at all, with a threshold of 250 millivolts.
  • Local anesthetics like Novocain and Xylocaine can block sodium channels, preventing pain impulses from being transmitted by neurons.
  • The myelin sheath, derived from glial cells, insulates axons and contributes to rapid nerve impulse conduction by allowing electrical conduction to skip from node to node.
  • Damage to the myelin sheath, as in multiple sclerosis, disrupts nerve impulse timing and can lead to uncoordinated movements and paralysis.
  • The nervous system communicates through synaptic transmission, which involves the release of chemical neurotransmitters at the synaptic cleft between neurons.
  • Otto Loewi's experiments demonstrated that neurons release chemicals, leading to the discovery of chemical neurotransmission and the synaptic cleft.
  • Neurotransmitters produced by neurons carry messages across the synapse to either excite or inhibit the firing of other neurons.
  • The discovery of the synaptic cleft raised questions about how messages are carried and how they affect the next neuron in the circuit.
  • The rate of nerve impulses is limited by the absolute refractory period, during which the neuron cannot be stimulated, placing an upper limit of about 300 impulses per second in humans.
  • The myelin sheath contributes to gains in muscular coordination in infants and is most commonly found in the nervous systems of higher animals.
  • Drugs that alter the transit of sodium and potassium ions can decrease or prevent neural functioning, highlighting the importance of ion balance for proper neuron function.

Test your understanding of scientific theory building and the psychological variables that are essential for scientific study. Explore the characteristics of good theories, the importance of prediction and control, and the self-correcting nature of the scientific process.

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