Science Class 10: Acids and Bases
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Science Class 10: Acids and Bases

Explore the foundational concepts of acids and bases in chemical science along with their properties, reactions, and real-world applications. Dive into the definitions, properties, reactions like acid-base neutralization, indicators, buffer solutions, and applications in industries, environment, pharmaceuticals, and food production.

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@IngeniousCanto

Questions and Answers

अम्ल क्या है?

एक पदार्थ जो प्रोटॉन (H⁺ आयन) दान करता है

बेस की पहचान क्या है?

एक पदार्थ जो प्रोटॉन (H⁺ आयन) स्वीकार करता है

पीएच स्केल के माध्यम से किसे मापा जाता है?

प्रोटॉन से आयतन

हाइड्रोक्लोरिक अम्ल का स्वाद कैसा होता है?

<p>तीखा</p> Signup and view all the answers

सोडियम हाइड्रॉक्साइड किस पेपर को नीला करता है?

<p>सफ़ेद लिटमस</p> Signup and view all the answers

ले-लुहलीकरण प्रतिक्रिया में क्या बनता है?

<p>नमक</p> Signup and view all the answers

पेनोल्फेथेलीन, मिथाइल ऑरेंज, और ब्रोमोथाइमॉल ब्लू किसे कहते हैं?

<p>अम्ल-आधार सूचक</p> Signup and view all the answers

किसके साथ-साथ सोडियम एसीटेट + ऐसीटिक एसिड और सोडियम हाइड्रोजन फॉस्फेट + डाईसोडियम फॉस्फेट समाधान शामिल है?

<p>बफर द्रव्य</p> Signup and view all the answers

किस प्रमुख उद्योग में सल्फुरिक एसिड और हाइड्रोक्लोरिक एसिड का व्यापक उपयोग होता है?

<p>तकनीक</p> Signup and view all the answers

मलिक एसिड, सिट्रिक एसिड, और लैक्टिक एसिड का किसे समाधान में प्रयोग किया जाता है?

<p>सॉफ्ट पेय</p> Signup and view all the answers

कौन-कौन से संक्रमण में ATP (adenosine triphosphate) मुख्यत: प्राथमिकत:?

<p><strong>ATP (adenosine triphosphate)</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

Acid rain formation, soil acidification, wastewater treatment के प्रक्रम में Acid-base reactions कि crucial role है, कहीं-कहीं Acids or bases का Overuse Toxicity पा सकता है:

<p><strong>Environmental processes</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Science Class 10: Acids and Bases

Acids and bases are fundamental concepts in chemical science, laying the foundation for understanding various chemical reactions and the world around us. In Science Class 10, students delve into their properties, reactions, and applications, making these topics engaging and essential to grasp.

Definitions and Properties

An acid is a substance that donates protons (H⁺ ions) when dissolved in water. Acids typically have a sour taste and can turn blue litmus paper red. Some common acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄), and acetic acid (CH₃COOH).

A base is a substance that accepts protons (H⁺ ions) when dissolved in water. Bases usually have a bitter taste and can turn red litmus paper blue. Some common bases include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and ammonia (NH₃).

Acids and bases can exhibit varying degrees of acidity or basicity, which is quantified using the pH scale. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, while values less than 7 indicate acidic solutions, and those greater than 7 indicate basic solutions.

Reactions

Acids and bases are involved in multiple important reactions:

  1. Acid-base neutralization reaction: When an acid reacts with a base, they form a salt and water. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) react to form sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H₂O).

    HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H₂O

  2. Acid-base indicator: A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base, indicating the acidity or basicity of a solution. Common indicators include phenolphthalein, methyl orange, and bromothymol blue.

  3. Buffer solutions: Acid-base mixtures that resist a change in pH when a small amount of an acid or base is added. Common buffer solutions include sodium acetate + acetic acid and sodium hydrogen phosphate + disodium phosphate.

Applications

Understanding acids and bases has numerous real-world applications:

  1. Industry and manufacturing: Acids like sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid are widely used in industries such as mining, oil refining, and chemical production. Bases like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are used in the production of soap, detergents, and paper.

  2. Environment and waste treatment: Acid-base reactions play a crucial role in environmental processes such as acid rain formation, soil acidification, and wastewater treatment.

  3. Pharmaceuticals and biochemistry: Acids and bases are essential in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and the study of enzymes and biological processes. For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a vital molecule in biochemistry, contains both acidic and basic functional groups.

  4. Food production and preservation: Acids like citric acid, malic acid, and lactic acid are used as food preservatives, flavoring agents, and in the production of soft drinks and candy.

By grasping the fundamental concepts of acids and bases, students can appreciate their importance in daily life and prepare for further studies in chemistry. So next time you taste a lemon, you'll appreciate the role it plays as an acid in your body and the world around you.

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