Richard Bellman, Herbert Simon, and Brains Processing Information

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Who was the first to develop an informal system of syllogisms for proper reasoning?

Aristotle

Which philosopher proposed that reasoning was similar to numerical computation, involving addition and subtraction in thoughts?

Thomas Hobbes

Who built the first known calculating machine that could perform multiplication and division before Pascal's adding machine?

Wilhelm Schickard

Around 1500, which individual designed but did not build a functional mechanical calculator?

Leonardo da Vinci

In his 1651 book Leviathan, who suggested the idea of an 'artificial animal'?

Thomas Hobbes

Who gave the first clear discussion of the distinction between mind and matter?

René Descartes

Who formalized a class of sequential decision problems called Markov decision processes?

Richard Bellman

For what did Herbert Simon win the Nobel Prize in economics in 1978?

Showing that models based on satisficing describe human behavior better

Who demonstrated the existence of localized areas of the brain responsible for specific cognitive functions?

Paul Broca

Who developed a staining technique allowing the observation of individual neurons in the brain?

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

Who was the first to apply mathematical models to the study of the nervous system?

Nicolas Rashevsky

What does neuroscience primarily study?

The nervous system, particularly the brain

Who proposed a model of artificial neurons characterized as being 'on' or 'off', with a switch to 'on' occurring in response to stimulation by neighboring neurons?

Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts

What is the term used to describe the hybrid field that intersects modern linguistics and AI?

Computational linguistics

Who demonstrated a simple updating rule for modifying the connection strengths between neurons, leading to an influential learning model known as 'Hebbian learning'?

Donald Hebb

Which pair of individuals built SNARC, the first neural network computer, in 1950?

Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds

When were Chomsky's syntactic models based on the Indian linguist Panini developed?

Around 350 B.C.

What is the name given to the model proposed by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts that showed that any computable function could be computed by some network of connected neurons?

Artificial neurons model

What were some of the problems that Minsky and colleagues at MIT worked on during the early enthusiasm period (1952-1969)?

Closed-form calculus integration problems

Who enhanced Hebb's learning methods in the 1960s?

Bernie Widrow and Rosenblatt

What happened to the early AI systems when they were tried on wider selections of problems and more difficult problems?

They failed miserably

What was the focus of Machine Translation (MT) that was funded by the U.S. National Research Council?

Speeding up the translation of Russian scientific papers

What famous saying was retranslated humorously during an advisory report on Machine Translation?

"The vodka is good but the meat is rotten"

Who proved the perceptron convergence theorem?

Rosenblatt

According to Haugeland (1985), what did he mean by 'machines with minds'?

Machines that can think and reason like humans.

Based on Bellman (1978), what activities are associated with human thinking in the context of automation?

Decision-making, problem-solving, and learning.

What does Charniak and McDermott (1985) refer to as the study of mental faculties?

The study of computational models.

According to Winston (1992), what computations are studied in the context of perceiving, reasoning, and acting?

Computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act.

How did Kurzweil (1990) define the art of creating machines?

Creating machines that perform functions requiring intelligence when done by people.

'Computational Intelligence' as defined by Poole et al. (1998) involves the design of what?

Design of intelligent agents for various tasks.

Learn about the works of Richard Bellman and Herbert Simon in formalizing sequential decision problems and models based on satisficing. Explore how brains process information in neuroscience.

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