Research Project Clarification in Literature Review

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20 Questions

Match the researcher with their study findings:

Nation (2003) = Using L1 in classroom management to enhance students' learning of L2 Nilsson (2015) = Swedish teachers code-switch languages for individual feedback while Chinese teachers consider L2 is learnt by students' code-switching to their mother tongue only in their mind Nazary (2008) = Reluctance of using L1 to learn L2 in Irani universities Al-Nofaie (2010) = Benefit of using Arabic in teaching English in specific areas which facilitate learning in the English classrooms

Match the author with the claim about language usage:

Salah (2012) = Using Arabic language in teaching English in primary schools is an unavoidable phenomenon Ahmad, Radzuan, and Hussain (2018) = Significant use of Arabic in teaching English with Arab teachers, while non-Arab teachers' usage is limited

Match the year with the researcher's findings:

Nation (2003) = Using L1 in classroom management to enhance students' learning of L2 Nilsson (2015) = Swedish teachers code-switch languages for individual feedback while Chinese teachers consider L2 is learnt by students' code-switching to their mother tongue only in their mind Nazary (2008) = Reluctance of using L1 to learn L2 in Irani universities Al-Nofaie (2010) = Benefit of using Arabic in teaching English in specific areas which facilitate learning in the English classrooms

Match the location with the researcher's claim:

Nazary (2008) = Irani universities Al-Nofaie (2010) = Teaching English language in specific areas which facilitate learning in the English classrooms

Match the following research questions/hypothesis with their corresponding categories:

What factors contribute to the successful development of English language proficiency in adult learners? = Step 5: Formulate Research Questions/Hypothesis How do formative assessment practices impact the language proficiency development of ESL students? = Assessment and Evaluation How does incorporating cultural elements in English language lessons contribute to cultural competence in ESL students? = Cultural Competence Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in English language proficiency scores between students taught using traditional methods and those taught using innovative, technology‐integrated methods. = Step 5: Formulate Research Questions/Hypothesis

Match the following topics with their corresponding focus areas:

Technology in Language Learning: How does the integration of technology, such as online language learning platforms, influence language acquisition in ESL (English as a Second Language) students? = Technology Integration What strategies can teachers use to promote intercultural communication in a diverse ESL classroom? = Intercultural Communication What are effective methods for assessing speaking and listening skills in English language learners? = Assessment Methods Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference in English language proficiency scores between students taught using traditional methods and those taught using innovative, technology‐integrated methods. = Technology Integration

Match the data collection method with the type of research it is commonly associated with:

Focus groups = Qualitative Research Surveys (online, phone, paper) = Quantitative Research In-depth interviews = Qualitative Research Audits = Quantitative Research

Match the following research methods with their primary purpose:

Surveys and questionnaires = Gathering specific information about attitudes or demographics Interviews = Gathering in-depth information and insights Uninterrupted observation = Exploring nuances related to a problem Points of purchase (purchase transactions) = Understanding prevalence of a problem

Match the type of data collected with the corresponding research method:

Words = Qualitative Research Numbers = Quantitative Research Attitudes, opinions, behaviors, demographics = Surveys/Questionnaires Specific information about a problem = Interviews

Match the purpose of the research with the appropriate description:

Exploratory, used when outcome is uncertain = Qualitative Research Conclusive, quantifying and understanding the problem = Quantitative Research Gathering insights and perspectives on a topic = Interviews Looking for projectable results to a larger population = Quantitative Research

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Independent Variable = The variable that is manipulated or changed Dependent Variable = The variable that is measured in response to changes in the independent variable Cause-and-effect relationship = Relationship where changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable Experimental Design = Methodology used to understand the relationship between variables

Match the following scenarios with their correct independent variable:

Conducting a study on the effects of different teaching methods = Teaching method (e.g., traditional lecture-based vs. hands-on interactive learning) Investigating how exercise duration impacts heart rate = Duration of exercise Analyzing the influence of temperature on plant growth = Temperature of the environment Studying the correlation between study time and exam scores = Amount of time spent studying

Match the following examples with their correct dependent variable:

Researching how type of music affects productivity = Productivity level Exploring the relationship between caffeine intake and sleep quality = Quality of sleep Examining the impact of social media usage on mental health = Mental health status Measuring the effect of fertilizer type on plant growth = Growth rate of plants

Match the following statements with their correct variable type:

"The amount of water given to plants significantly affects their growth rate." = Dependent Variable "Changing study habits can lead to improvements in exam scores." = Independent Variable "Increased sugar intake is associated with higher risk of diabetes." = Dependent Variable "Different lighting conditions can influence mood." = Independent Variable

Match the research method with its description:

Observations = Systematically watching and recording behaviors, interactions, or events in natural or controlled settings Focus Groups = Bringing together a small group of participants to discuss specific topics in a facilitated group discussion Document Analysis = Systematically analyzing written or recorded materials such as texts, articles, reports, archives, or social media content Experimental Tools (e.g., cognitive tasks, simulations) = Involves controlled manipulations of independent variables to observe their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions

Match the research method with its primary usage:

Qualitative Research = Document Analysis Experimental Research = Experimental Tools

Match the research method with the field it is commonly associated with:

Psychology = Observations Sociology = Focus Groups Communication Studies = Document Analysis Cognitive Science = Experimental Tools

Match the research method with its data collection approach:

Direct observation = Observations Group interaction = Focus Groups Textual analysis = Document Analysis Controlled experiments = Experimental Tools

Match the research method with its participant involvement approach:

Passive data collection = Observations Interactive group setting = Focus Groups Text analysis = Document Analysis Active manipulation of variables = Experimental Tools

Match the research method with its focus on data interpretation:

Behavior patterns and trends = Observations Group dynamics and consensus building = Focus Groups Content themes and meanings = Document Analysis Cause-effect relationships = Experimental Tools

Study Notes

Clarifying the Problem

  • The knowledge gained from reviewing literature helps to clarify and narrow the research project.
  • The aim is to identify the factors that contribute to the successful development of English language proficiency in adult learners.

Research Questions and Hypothesis

  • Research questions:
    • What factors contribute to the successful development of English language proficiency in adult learners?
    • How does technology integration influence language acquisition in ESL students?
    • How does incorporating cultural elements in English language lessons contribute to cultural competence in ESL students?
    • What are effective methods for assessing speaking and listening skills in English language learners?
  • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in English language proficiency scores between students taught using traditional methods and those taught using innovative, technology-integrated methods.
  • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference in English language proficiency scores between students taught using traditional methods and those taught using innovative, technology-integrated methods.

Research Methods

  • Qualitative Research:
    • Definition: Exploratory, used to define a problem or develop an approach.
    • Common data collection methods: focus groups, in-depth interviews, uninterrupted observation, bulletin boards, and ethnographic participation/observation.
  • Quantitative Research:
    • Definition: Conclusive, aims to quantify a problem and understand its prevalence.
    • Common data collection methods: surveys, audits, points of purchase (purchase transactions), and other trend data.
  • Examples of Research Methods and Collection tools:
    • Surveys/Questionnaires: Quantitative Research
    • Interviews: Qualitative Research, Mixed Methods Research
    • Observations: Qualitative Research, Ethnography, Case Study
    • Focus Groups: Qualitative Research
    • Document Analysis: Qualitative Research, Content Analysis
    • Experimental Tools: Experimental Research
    • Tests and Assessments: Quantitative Research, Experimental Research

Independent and Dependent Variables

  • Independent Variable: The variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher.
  • Dependent Variable: The variable that is measured or observed in response to changes in the independent variable.
  • Example: Independent Variable: Amount of homework given; Dependent Variable: Student achievement marks.

Learn about the importance of clarifying and narrowing research projects in step 3 after reviewing literature. Understand how literature guides researchers in defining the problem, aim, sampling, place, results, and making comments on articles. Example provided from Nation (2003) on using L1 in classroom management.

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