RCSI - MUB Cell Ultrastructure: Cell Division & the Cell Cycle Quiz

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What is the form of DNA when the cell is not replicating?

Chromatin

What are sister chromatids?

Two strands of a replicated chromosome

What is the function of the kinetochore?

Control assembly and disassembly of the spindle fibre microtubules

What is the repeating sequence at the ends of the chromosome called?

Telomere

Which structures replicate to ensure that each new daughter cell receives the correct number of chromosomes?

Chromosomes

Where are cohesin protein complexes particularly concentrated during the duplication of chromosomes?

At the centromere

During which phase does chromatin cease to function as accessible genetic material?

Prophase

What is the form that DNA adapts to in order to become easily transportable?

Chromosomes

What does euchromatin signify?

Genes are expressible

What is the structure that controls the movement of chromosomes during cell division?

Kinetochore

During which phase of the cell cycle is the cell actively dividing?

M phase

What is the main function of the kinetochore during cell division?

To anchor the chromosomes to the spindle fibers

Which structure is responsible for controlling the entry of a cell into the S phase of the cell cycle?

Checkpoints in the cell cycle

What is the role of telomeres in the cell cycle?

To maintain chromosome stability and prevent degradation

Which phase of mitotic division involves the separation of sister chromatids?

Anaphase

What event marks the end of cytokinesis?

Formation of the cleavage furrow

What triggers a cell to enter the M phase from the G2 phase?

Degradation of cyclin proteins

What is the primary function of centrosomes during mitotic division?

To organize and separate the spindle fibers

Which phase of interphase involves DNA replication?

S phase

What is the significance of G1 phase in interphase?

To prepare for DNA replication in S phase

Study Notes

DNA Structure and Function

  • When the cell is not replicating, DNA is in its chromatin form.
  • Euchromatin signifies active gene expression and is lightly packed chromatin.

Chromosome Duplication

  • Sister chromatids are identical copies of a chromosome that are joined together at the centromere.
  • Cohesin protein complexes are particularly concentrated at the centromere during chromosome duplication.
  • The centromere is the region where sister chromatids are joined together.

Cell Cycle

  • During the G2 phase, chromatin ceases to function as accessible genetic material.
  • The S phase is the stage of interphase where DNA replication occurs.
  • The G1 phase is significant in interphase as it allows cells to grow and prepare for DNA replication.
  • The cell cycle is the process of cell growth, replication, and division.

Cell Division

  • The structure that controls the movement of chromosomes during cell division is the spindle apparatus.
  • The kinetochore is the protein structure that attaches to the spindle fibers and controls the movement of chromosomes during cell division.
  • The primary function of centrosomes during mitotic division is to organize the spindle fibers.
  • The main function of the kinetochore during cell division is to attach to the spindle fibers and control the movement of chromosomes.

Mitosis

  • The phase of mitotic division that involves the separation of sister chromatids is anaphase.
  • The event that marks the end of cytokinesis is the separation of the daughter cells.

Regulation of Cell Cycle

  • The structure responsible for controlling the entry of a cell into the S phase of the cell cycle is the retinoblastoma protein (Rb).
  • What triggers a cell to enter the M phase from the G2 phase is the activation of the Cdk1-cyclin B complex.

Telomeres

  • Telomeres are the repeating sequences at the ends of chromosomes, responsible for protecting the chromosome from degradation.
  • The role of telomeres in the cell cycle is to maintain the integrity of chromosomes during DNA replication.

Test your knowledge on cell division and the cell cycle with this quiz covering topics such as chromatin fibers, chromosomes, centromere, kinetochore, telomere, karyotype, karyokinesis, and cytokinesis in mitosis. This quiz is part of the Foundation Year FUNBIO course - Introduction to Human Biology at Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Medical University of Bahrain.

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