Qualitative Analysis of Group I Cations Experiment

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Lead(II) chloride can be separated from the other two chlorides based on its increased solubility at higher temperatures. This means that lead(II) chloride will dissolve in hot water, leaving the mercury(I) chloride and the silver chloride in solid form: ______(s) ⟶ Pb2+ (aq) + 2Cl− (aq)

PbCl2

The presence of ______ in the aqueous solution can then be confirmed by the formation of a yellow precipitate of PbCrO4 upon the addition of aqueous K2CrO4: ______ (aq) + CrO4−2 (aq) ⟶ PbCrO4.

Pb2+

Their separation from all other ______ may be accomplished by the addition of 6 M HCl (aq) resulting in the precipitation of AgCl(s), PbCl2(s), and Hg2Cl2(s)

ions

Resulting in the precipitation of AgCl(s), PbCl2(s), and Hg2Cl2(s): AgNO3 + HCl → AgCl ↓+ HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl → PbCl2↓ + 2HNO3 Hg2(NO3)2 + 2HCl → Hg2Cl2↓+ 2HNO3

addition of 6 M HCl (aq)

Their separation from all other ions may be accomplished by the addition of 6 M HCl (aq) resulting in the precipitation of AgCl(s), PbCl2(s), and Hg2Cl2(s)

insoluble chlorides

What are the products formed when AgNO3 reacts with HCl?

AgCl

What is the increased solubility at higher temperatures used for in the separation of lead(II) chloride?

Dissolving lead(II) chloride in hot water

What is the confirmation of the presence of Pb2+ in the aqueous solution?

Formation of a yellow precipitate of PbCrO4 upon addition of aqueous K2CrO4

How can lead(II) chloride be separated from the other two chlorides?

By its increased solubility at higher temperatures

What happens when Hg2(NO3)2 reacts with 2HCl?

Formation of Hg2Cl2

Match the following ions with their corresponding insoluble chlorides:

Ag+ = AgCl Pb2+ = PbCl2 Hg22+ = Hg2Cl2 Cl- = PbCrO4

Match the following reactions with their resulting precipitates:

AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl ↓ Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl = PbCl2↓ Hg2(NO3)2 + 2HCl = Hg2Cl2↓ Pb2+ (aq) + CrO4−2 (aq) = PbCrO4

Match the following substances with their primary role in separation:

6 M HCl (aq) = Precipitation of insoluble chlorides Hot water = Increased solubility of PbCl2 Aqueous K2CrO4 = Confirmation of Pb2+ presence AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2, Hg2(NO3)2 = Formation of precipitates

Match the following substances with their respective uses in the process:

AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2, Hg2(NO3)2 = Formation of precipitates 6 M HCl (aq) = Separation from other ions Hot water = Dissolving lead(II) chloride Aqueous K2CrO4 = Confirming presence of Pb2+

Match the following statements with their corresponding processes:

Addition of 6 M HCl (aq) = Separation from all other ions Increased solubility at higher temperatures = Dissolving lead(II) chloride Formation of yellow precipitate of PbCrO4 = Confirmation of Pb2+ presence Precipitation of AgCl, PbCl2, and Hg2Cl2 = Resulting from addition of HCl

Explore the practical aspects of qualitative analysis by learning to separate and identify ions in a known mixture of Group I cations. Apply this analytical scheme to identify ions in an unknown mixture, gaining hands-on experience in analytical chemistry.

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