Forensic Psychology and the Law (Intro Forensic)

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Who conducted some of the first North American experiments on eyewitness testimony?

James McKeen Cattell

Who developed the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany?

Wilhelm Wundt

Who conducted studies showing that children's testimony is highly susceptible to suggestive questioning techniques?

Alfred Binet

Who demonstrated that asking children to report everything they saw resulted in the most accurate answers?

Alfred Binet

Who was the first researcher to demonstrate that an observer's level of emotional arousal can impact the accuracy of their testimony?

William Stern

Which two relationships will be the focus of this textbook?

Psychology and the law, psychology in the law

When did forensic psychology emerge as a distinct field?

Late 19th century

Who were the early pioneers in the application of psychology to legal contexts?

Hugo Münsterberg and William James

What significant advancements were made in forensic psychology in the mid-20th century?

Development of profiling and criminal behavior studies

What are some examples of the diverse applications of forensic psychology?

All of the above

Which field of forensic science uses art to aid in the identification, apprehension, and conviction of offenders?

Forensic art

What is the role of a forensic psychologist as a legal scholar?

To engage in scholarly analyses of mental health law and psychologically oriented legal movements

What is the main focus of forensic entomology?

Determining when someone died based on an analysis of insect presence/development

What is the role of a forensic pathologist?

To examine the remains of dead bodies to determine the time and cause of death

What is the main focus of forensic podiatry?

Assisting with police investigations and court proceedings related to footprints

Which field of psychology deals with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system?

Forensic psychology

What is the main focus of clinical forensic psychologists?

Assessment and treatment of mental health issues

Which of the following is NOT an area where clinical forensic psychologists may be involved?

Conducting psychological research

What educational requirements are necessary for clinical forensic psychologists in the United States to obtain a license?

Doctoral degree in psychology or a related discipline

What is the final step in the licensing process for clinical forensic psychologists in the United States?

Completing a supervised practice under the guidance of an experienced clinical supervisor

Who developed the first modern polygraph in 1917?

William Marston

In which year did a North American psychologist testify in court as an expert witness for the first time?

1921

In which court case did the U.S. Supreme Court lay out specific criteria for determining when scientific evidence can be admitted?

Daubert V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Who proposed the first testable theory of criminal behavior in their book 'Crime and Personality'?

Hans J. Eysenck

When was forensic psychology formally recognized as a specialty discipline by the American Psychological Association?

2001

Which of the following is a key responsibility of clinical forensic psychologists?

All of the above

What is the required educational qualification for clinical forensic psychologists in the United States to obtain a license?

Doctoral degree in psychology or a related discipline

What is the licensing process for clinical forensic psychologists in the United States?

All of the above

What is the role of forensic psychiatrists?

Assessment and treatment of mental health issues as they pertain to the law or legal system

Which field of psychology deals with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system?

Forensic psychology

Which two researchers explored the psychological factors underlying criminal actions and developed techniques for analyzing crime scenes, offender behavior, and motives?

Hans Gross and Paul Ekman

Which of the following is NOT a significant date in the history of forensic psychology?

1906

Which organization fosters research, collaboration, and ethical practices within forensic psychology?

American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS)

Which area of forensic psychology involves providing expert testimony on mental competency, assessing the risk of violence or reoffending, and evaluating child custody disputes?

Clinical forensic psychology

Who conducted the first experiments in North America on the psychology of testimony?

James McKeen Cattell

Which field of forensic science examines the remains of deceased individuals to determine how they might have died and to establish facts about them, such as their gender, age, and appearance?

Forensic anthropology

What is the main focus of forensic odontology?

Studying the dental aspects of criminal activity

What is the main focus of forensic pathology?

Examining the remains of dead bodies to determine the time and cause of death

What is the main focus of forensic podiatry?

Using knowledge of how the feet and lower limbs function to assist with police investigations and court proceedings

What is the role of a forensic psychologist as a legal scholar?

Engaging in scholarly analyses of mental health law and psychologically oriented legal movements

What are some examples of topics that forensic psychologists testify about in court?

The accuracy of eyewitness identification

What is one of the functions of an expert witness in court?

To assist the court in understanding a particular issue

Why is it important for forensic psychologists to become more knowledgeable about the law and the legal system?

To increase their contribution to the judicial system

What separates an expert witness from other witnesses in court?

Their ability to provide personal opinions

According to Ogloff and Cronshaw (2001), what are the two functions of an expert witness?

To assist the court in understanding a particular issue and to provide personal opinions

What do expert witnesses in court often do based on their observations?

Draw inferences

What is one of the criteria that courts consider when determining whether psychological testimony should be admitted?

The criteria for admitting psychological testimony

What is one way in which psychology and the law differ from each other?

The role of an expert witness

What is one reason why forensic psychologists are increasingly asked to provide expert testimony in court?

The variety of topics they can testify about

What do forensic psychologists need to become more knowledgeable about in order to contribute to the judicial system?

The law and the legal system

Which of the following is an example of a topic that forensic psychologists may testify about in court?

The effects of crime on victims

What is one way in which expert witnesses differ from other witnesses in court?

They can provide the court with their personal opinion

What is one important reason for forensic psychologists to become more knowledgeable about the law and the legal system?

To increase their credibility as expert witnesses

Which of the following is NOT a topic that forensic psychologists may testify about in court?

The effects of crime on victims

What is one area that forensic psychologists need to become more knowledgeable about in order to contribute to the judicial system?

The law and the legal system

In what century did the acceptance of psychological aspects of offending, such as insanity, become part of the law?

15th century

Which of the following is an example of a topic that forensic psychologists may testify about in court?

The effects of crime on victims

What is one area that forensic psychologists need to become more knowledgeable about in order to contribute to the judicial system?

The role of an expert witness

What is one important reason for forensic psychologists to become more knowledgeable about the law and the legal system?

To increase their credibility as expert witnesses

Which debate in psychology revolves around the issue of how people acquire their behaviors and mental processes?

Nature/nurture

Which philosophical approach suggests that the mind controls the body?

Emergence

What is law defined as?

The rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence

Which debate in psychology revolves around the issue of how people acquire their behaviors and mental processes?

Nature/nurture

Which philosophical approach suggests that the mind controls the body?

Emergence

What is law defined as?

The rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence

Which debate in psychology revolves around the issue of whether our behaviors and mental processes are a product of our choice or the unavoidable result of precursors?

Free will/determinism

Which philosophical approach suggests that the mind and body causally affect each other?

Interactionism

What is law defined as?

The rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence

Which type of case involves the settlement of a dispute between two parties?

Civil case

Which type of case involves the prosecution by the state of an individual who has violated a law?

Criminal case

Appellate decisions are made by which type of court?

Higher court

What is the Latin phrase that represents the Common Law standard for establishing criminal guilt?

Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea

What is the legal principle of following precedents called?

Stare decisis

Which of the following best describes the legal principle of following precedents in deciding a case?

The idea that future decisions of a court should be influenced by prior decisions

What is the purpose of using case studies in forensic psychology?

To provide real-life examples of legal and psychological perspectives

What can be gained from studying case studies in forensic psychology?

A deeper understanding of the complexity of theory applied to law and human behavior

Which legal principle states that future court decisions should follow the example set by prior decisions?

Precedent principle

What is the main purpose of conducting case studies in forensic psychology?

To study individuals or groups in depth

What does the field of forensic psychology study?

Human behavior as it relates to the law

Which term refers to an action that a person intentionally performs or engages in, and involves actively carrying out a specific behavior that is prohibited by law?

Positive Act

Which term refers to the failure to act or the omission of a required action that results in criminal liability?

Negative Act

Which term refers to the conscious desire or purpose to engage in a specific act or achieve a particular outcome?

Intention

Which term refers to a state of mind where an individual is aware of a substantial and unjustifiable risk associated with their actions but proceeds regardless of that risk?

Recklessness

What is an example of a positive act?

Physically assaulting someone

According to the psychoanalytical perspective, which structure represents the quest for moral perfection?

Superego

Who extended John Watson's work to develop models of complex behavior that focused on punishment and positive reinforcement?

B.F. Skinner

Which type of reinforcement is naturally reinforcing to an individual?

Primary reinforcer

Which type of reinforcement decreases the likelihood of recurrence of a response when applied after the response?

Punishment

Which schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement following every correct response?

Continuous reinforcement

Which perspective in forensic psychology focuses on the path to self-actualization and the gratification of lower-level needs?

Humanistic perspective

According to the humanistic perspective, what is the cause of criminal behavior?

Abnormal mental processes and/or behavioral patterns

Which perspective in forensic psychology emphasizes abnormal mental processes and/or behavioral patterns as the cause of criminal behavior?

Cognitive perspective

According to the cognitive perspective, what is the basis of personality?

The result of our behaviors and mental processes

What is the primary focus of altering the criminal personality according to the cognitive perspective?

Training and learning

Which tool is used to gather information about individuals' beliefs, attitudes, or opinions on specific psychological constructs or topics?

Psychological beliefs survey

What is the purpose of a rating guide?

To gather subjective responses

Which type of scale is commonly used in rating guides?

Numerical scale

What can be assessed using a rating guide?

Beliefs, values, or opinions

What does a psychological beliefs survey cover?

Specific psychological constructs

Which type of questions are often included in psychological beliefs surveys?

Multiple-choice questions

What areas may be covered in a psychological beliefs survey?

Personality and intelligence

What can researchers gain insights into through the responses collected in a psychological beliefs survey?

Patterns in human behavior

What is the main purpose of psychological beliefs surveys?

To explore relationships between beliefs

What is one potential area of focus in a psychological beliefs survey?

Mental health

Study Notes

Early Developments in Forensic Psychology

  • Hugo Münsterberg conducted some of the first North American experiments on eyewitness testimony
  • Wilhelm Wundt developed the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
  • Stephen Ceci showed that children's testimony is highly susceptible to suggestive questioning techniques
  • Maggie Bruck demonstrated that asking children to report everything they saw resulted in the most accurate answers
  • Christian Hochheimer demonstrated that an observer's level of emotional arousal can impact the accuracy of their testimony

Emergence of Forensic Psychology as a Field

  • Forensic psychology emerged as a distinct field in the mid-20th century
  • Early pioneers in the application of psychology to legal contexts include Lightner Witmer, William Healy, and Albert Jenner
  • Significant advancements were made in forensic psychology in the mid-20th century

Applications of Forensic Psychology

  • Forensic psychology has diverse applications, including:
    • Forensic art: uses art to aid in the identification, apprehension, and conviction of offenders
    • Forensic entomology: focuses on the study of insects and their relation to crime scenes
    • Forensic pathology: examines the remains of deceased individuals to determine how they might have died and to establish facts about them
    • Forensic podiatry: focuses on the identification of individuals through their footwear or footprints

Clinical Forensic Psychologists

  • Clinical forensic psychologists deal with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system
  • They focus on assessing and treating mentally disordered offenders, evaluating competency to stand trial, and providing expert testimony in court
  • Educational requirements include a doctoral degree in psychology and a license to practice psychology in the United States
  • The licensing process involves obtaining a doctoral degree, completing an internship, and passing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP)

History of Forensic Psychology

  • John Larson developed the first modern polygraph in 1917
  • A North American psychologist testified in court as an expert witness for the first time in 1920
  • The U.S. Supreme Court laid out specific criteria for determining when scientific evidence can be admitted in the Daubert case (1993)
  • Hans Eysenck proposed the first testable theory of criminal behavior in his book 'Crime and Personality' (1964)
  • Forensic psychology was formally recognized as a specialty discipline by the American Psychological Association in 2001

Expert Witnesses

  • Expert witnesses in court provide objective, unbiased testimony based on their expertise
  • They often testify about topics such as mental competency, risk assessment, and child custody disputes
  • The role of a forensic psychologist as a legal scholar is to provide expert testimony and educate the court on relevant psychological issues

Law and Psychology

  • Forensic psychologists need to become more knowledgeable about the law and the legal system to contribute to the judicial system
  • Expert witnesses differ from other witnesses in that they provide objective, unbiased testimony based on their expertise
  • The acceptance of psychological aspects of offending, such as insanity, became part of the law in the 18th century
  • The debate in psychology revolves around the issue of how people acquire their behaviors and mental processes (nature vs. nurture)
  • The philosophical approach that suggests that the mind controls the body is dualism
  • Law is defined as a set of rules and standards that are enforced by a governing body

Test your knowledge of the different relationships between psychology and the law with this quiz! Explore the concepts of psychology and the law, psychology in the law, and psychology of the law. Challenge yourself and see how much you know about this fascinating field of study.

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