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Neurolaw: Eyewitness Testimony and Lie Detection

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40 Questions

What is the estimated range of wrongful convictions in the U.S. annually due to mistaken eyewitness testimony?

2000 to 10,000

Which of the following is NOT an area of study in the field of neurolaw?

Criminal profiling

What is the primary concern with eyewitness testimony, according to the text?

It is often mistaken

Which of the following is an area of study in neurolaw related to brain-based techniques?

Lie detection methods

What is the goal of using neuroscience-based interventions in neurolaw?

To diminish the risk of an offender reoffending

What is a potential consequence of having the low-activity form of the MAOA gene and experiencing childhood abuse?

Six times higher likelihood of being convicted of violent crimes

What brain region has been found to be smaller in individuals with antisocial criminal tendencies?

Amygdala

What is a potential application of neuroscience-based interventions in the criminal justice system?

Developing treatments to reduce the risk of reoffending

What is a characteristic of individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)?

An 11% reduction in volume of gray matter in the prefrontal cortex

How do individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) respond to facial displays of others' distress?

They show reduced response to facial displays of others' distress

What is the primary goal of neurological mindreading in legal defense?

To establish whether the defendant's brain was capable of appreciating the criminality of their conduct

Which brain region is associated with loss of fear conditioning and may contribute to aggressive behavior?

Amygdala

What is the significance of the study by Wang, Cherkassky, and Just (2017) in the context of neurological mindreading?

It identified the brain regions involved in forgiveness and spirituality

What is the legal implication of using neurological evidence in an insanity defense?

It can exempt the defendant from criminal responsibility if they lacked substantial capacity

What is the percentage of accused felons who plead insanity in the United States?

1%

What is a key element of the cognitive interview technique used to improve eyewitness testimony?

Reinstating the physical and emotional context of the crime

What can reduce the number of innocent people incorrectly identified by eyewitnesses?

Warning witnesses that the perpetrator may not be present

What is a possible consequence of telling witnesses that the perpetrator may not be present in a lineup?

Reduced number of false identifications

What is a key factor in implanting false memories in individuals?

Visualization of the event

What is a documented phenomenon in the context of recovered memories?

Forgetting of painful childhood memories with possible recall years later

What is the primary reason why eyewitness testimony is considered unreliable?

Witnesses' attention is often stressed or distracted

What is the effect of positive feedback on eyewitness testimony?

It increases the confidence of the witness in their testimony

What is the name of the phenomenon where people incorporate misleading information into their memory of an event?

The misinformation effect

According to the study by Loftus and Palmer, what is the result of using the word 'smashed' instead of 'hit' when asking about a traffic accident?

People gave faster speed estimates

How many of the 62 cases of wrongful conviction examined in the study were based on eyewitness testimony?

52

What is the primary basis of the 'guilty knowledge test' in lie detection?

Comparing physiological responses to specific details of a crime

What is the role of the prefrontal region in deception?

It is linked to response inhibition and is active during deception

What is the limitation of using fMRI brain imaging for lie detection?

It is very expensive and of questionable accuracy

What is the goal of the Neurological Mind Reading project led by Marcel Just?

To learn to read people's minds based on fMRI cortical activation patterns

What is the term used to describe the EEG technique that detects brain wave patterns associated with emotional experiences?

Brain fingerprinting

What is the primary assumption behind the use of polygraph lie detectors?

That lying is associated with emotional arousal

What is a limitation of polygraph lie detectors in detecting deception?

They are unable to distinguish between lying and other stressful situations

What is the estimated error rate of polygraph lie detectors in detecting deception?

1 in 3 innocent individuals are declared guilty

Why might a child protest that a false event really happened, even when reminded that it did not occur?

The child's brain is still developing and may have difficulty distinguishing between reality and fantasy

What is the purpose of the control question in a polygraph examination?

To establish a baseline for physiological responses

What is the primary difference between the control question and the relevant question in a polygraph examination?

The control question is related to a neutral topic, and the relevant question is related to the incident in question

Why might the results of a polygraph examination not be admissible in court?

The polygraph is not a reliable measure of deception

What is the significance of the finding that preschoolers can produce false memories of events?

It indicates that children's brains are more susceptible to suggestion and fantasy

What is the implication of the fact that some people tend to be more prone to arousal when taking a polygraph examination?

They are more likely to be anxious in general

What is the primary concern with the use of polygraph lie detectors in legal proceedings?

They may lead to false convictions and false acquittals

Test your knowledge of neurolaw, a field that combines neuroscience and law. This quiz covers eyewitness testimony, false memories, lie detection, and more. Explore the intersection of cognitive science and forensic psychology.

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