Prejudice and Stereotypes Quiz

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What do stereotypes save according to the text?

Cognitive effort

What does illusory correlation lead individuals to assume?

A relationship between two variables that does not exist

According to Tajfel (1981), what are stereotypes based on?

Learning and socialization

What type of information do individuals tend to pay more attention to, according to Cohen (1981) and Crisp & Turner (2014)?

Stereotype-consistent information

According to Social Identity Theory, what comprises our self-image?

Personal identity and social identity

What did Lemyre and Smith (1985) demonstrate about intergroup discrimination and self-esteem?

Intergroup discrimination enhanced people’s self-esteem

What is out-group homogeneity?

Tendency to view all out-group members as similar to each other

What is the consequence of stereotype threat?

Compromised performance on a task due to anxiety about confirming negative stereotypes

How can prejudice be reduced according to Allport (1954)?

Through contact with the other group of equal status and without competition, aiming to achieve a common goal

What did the Robbers Cave Experiment demonstrate about reducing group differences?

Cooperation for a common goal made group differences disappear

According to Social Identity Theory, what reduces prejudice and hostile attitudes towards the out-group?

Categorizing a former out-group as in-group

What phenomenon does social categorization lead to?

Out-group homogeneity

What is prejudice?

A positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership, with most focus on negative attitudes

What is the Implicit Association Test (IAT) used for?

To measure implicit attitudes triggered automatically

What did Adorno et al. propose the existence of?

An authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice

What is social dominance orientation aimed to measure?

The desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy

What did Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments demonstrate?

The mere categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases

What does social identity theory explain?

The phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups

Match the following concepts with their descriptions:

Prejudice = Positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership Racism = Prejudice based on ethnic group membership Social dominance orientation = Measuring the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy Intergroup conflict = Arises from fights over scarce resources, leading to prejudice and hostility

Match the following researchers with their proposed measurements of prejudice:

Adorno et al. = Authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice, measured by the 'Fascism scale' (F scale) Rokeach = Theory of the open and closed mind aimed to measure dogmatism Tajfel et al. = Minimal group experiments demonstrating the categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases Sidanius = Proposed the concept of social dominance orientation

Match the following concepts with their explanations:

Implicit attitudes = Triggered automatically, can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Cognitive loops = Strengthen existing prejudice by reinforcing beliefs about particular groups Social norms = Have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors Social identity theory = Explains the phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups

Match the following researchers with their contributions to the study of stereotypes:

Fiske and Taylor (1991) = Argued that we form social schemas and stereotypes save cognitive effort Brewer (1988) = Argued that stereotypes often develop towards observable attributes of a person Hamilton & Gifford (1976) = Described the illusory correlation which assumes a relationship between variables that does not exist Tajfel (1981) = Argued that stereotypes are based on learning and socialization, and less on direct experience

Match the following concepts with their characteristics:

Prototypes = Essentially stereotypes that save cognitive effort Stereotypes = Organize information about groups and miss significant differences between group members Illusory correlation = Assumes a relationship between variables that does not exist and perpetuates racial stereotypes Socialization = Basis for the development of stereotypes and less on direct experience

Match the following phenomena with their effects:

Schemas and stereotypes = Save cognitive effort and lead to generalization and missing significant differences between group members Illusory correlation = Leads individuals to assume non-existent relationships between variables and perpetuates racial stereotypes Socialization = Basis for the development of stereotypes and less on direct experience Attention to stereotype-consistent information = Leads to better memory of such information

Match the following researchers with their findings:

Cohen (1981) and Crisp & Turner (2014) = Found that individuals tend to pay more attention to stereotype-consistent information and have a better memory of such information Tajfel (1981) = Demonstrated that stereotypes are based on learning and the way we have been socialized, and less on direct experience Hamilton & Gifford (1976) = Described the illusory correlation which assumes a relationship between variables that does not exist and perpetuates racial stereotypes Brewer (1988) = Argued that stereotypes often develop towards observable attributes of a person

Match the following researchers with their findings:

Lemyre and Smith = Demonstrated that intergroup discrimination enhanced people’s self-esteem Linville et al. = Demonstrated the phenomenon of out-group homogeneity Steel et al. = Found a significant difference in performance on a verbal ability test based on race Allport = Proposed that prejudice can be reduced through contact with the other group

Match the following concepts with their descriptions:

Out-group homogeneity = Reflects our tendency to view all out-group members as similar to each other Stereotype threat = Leads to compromised performance on a task due to anxiety about confirming negative stereotypes Reducing Prejudice = Can be achieved through contact between groups of equal status and without competition Social identity theory = Explains that the more positive we regard our in-group, the more positive our self-image will be

Match the following experiments with their findings:

Robbers Cave Experiment = Cooperation for a common goal made group differences disappear Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments = Demonstrated that categorizing a former out-group as in-group eliminated prejudice and hostile attitudes towards the out-group Adorno et al. = Proposed the existence of social dominance orientation Sherif = Made both groups work together to restore the camp’s water supply, reducing group differences

Match the following researchers with their proposed theories:

Myers = Proposed that if we struggle to establish a positive personal identity, we try to improve our self-esteem through positive group identity Martin et al. = Proposed that out-group homogeneity reflects standardized societal beliefs that have become social norms Reicher et al. = Provided evidence to demonstrate that categorizing a former out-group as in-group eliminated prejudice and hostile attitudes towards the out-group Cohen (1981) and Crisp & Turner (2014) = Proposed that illusory correlation leads individuals to assume that stereotype-consistent information is more informative

What do stereotypes save, according to the text?

Cognitive effort

What do illusory correlations lead individuals to assume?

Existence of non-existent relationships

What do stereotypes make us generalize and miss between members of a group?

Significant differences

According to Tajfel (1981), what are stereotypes based on?

Learning and socialization

What does out-group homogeneity reflect?

Our tendency to view all out-group members as similar to each other

What did Lemyre and Smith (1985) demonstrate about intergroup discrimination and self-esteem?

Intergroup discrimination enhanced people’s self-esteem

What did the Robbers Cave Experiment demonstrate about reducing group differences?

Cooperation for a common goal made group differences disappear

What is the consequence of stereotype threat?

People’s actual performance on a task may be compromised

What does Social Identity Theory propose as a way to reduce prejudice?

Contact between both groups of equal status and without competition

What did Allport (1954) propose as a way to reduce prejudice?

Contact between both groups of equal status and without competition

What phenomenon does social categorization lead to?

Out-group homogeneity

How did Sherif make both groups, the Rattlers and the Eagles, work together in the Robbers Cave Experiment?

To restore the camp’s water supply

What is prejudice?

A negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership

What is the Implicit Association Test (IAT) used for?

Measuring implicit attitudes triggered automatically

What is racism based on?

Ethnic group membership

What did Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments demonstrate?

The mere categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases

What is the consequence of stereotype threat?

Underperformance due to the fear of confirming a negative stereotype

What did Adorno et al. propose the existence of?

An authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice

What does social identity theory explain?

The phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups

What is the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy measured by?

Social dominance orientation

What do stereotypes make us generalize and miss between members of a group?

Differences

What is the impact of social norms on prejudice?

Greater than individual factors

What phenomenon does social categorization lead to?

Negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases

What comprises our self-image according to Social Identity Theory?

Group membership and social roles

What did Fiske and Taylor (1991) argue about social schemas and prototypes?

Fiske and Taylor argued that we form social schemas which organize information about other people, groups, and events, and that when we categorize information about groups, we do this based on prototypes, which are essentially stereotypes.

What biases are stereotypes subject to, according to the text?

Stereotypes can be subject to biases such as illusory correlation, which assumes a relationship between two variables that does not exist, and overestimation of how often this relationship co-occurs.

According to Tajfel (1981), what are stereotypes based on?

Tajfel argued that stereotypes are based on learning and the way we have been socialized, and less on direct experience.

What type of information do individuals tend to pay more attention to, according to Cohen (1981) and Crisp & Turner (2014)?

Individuals tend to pay more attention to stereotype-consistent information and have a better memory of such information.

What are the conditions that make contact between different groups effective in reducing prejudice, according to Social Identity Theory?

The contact between both groups must be of equal status and without competition, and the aim to achieve a common goal will also reduce prejudice.

What did Sherif's Robbers Cave Experiment demonstrate about reducing group differences?

The cooperation for a common goal made group differences disappear, providing evidence that categorizing a former out-group as in-group eliminated prejudice and hostile attitudes towards the out-group.

What did Allport (1954) propose as a way to reduce prejudice?

Allport proposed that prejudice can be reduced through contact with the other group, under the conditions of equal status and without competition, and the aim to achieve a common goal.

What is out-group homogeneity, according to the text?

Out-group homogeneity is a clear bias and reflects our tendency to view all out-group members as similar to each other.

What is the consequence of stereotype threat, as discussed in the text?

People may be anxious that they confirm existing negative stereotypes about their group, leading to compromised performance on tasks.

What does Social Identity Theory propose as a way to maintain a positive self-image?

Social Identity Theory proposes that the more positive we regard our in-group, the more positive our self-image will be, and if struggling to establish a positive personal identity, we try to improve our self-esteem through positive group identity.

What did Lemyre and Smith (1985) demonstrate about intergroup discrimination and self-esteem?

Lemyre and Smith (1985) demonstrated that intergroup discrimination enhanced people’s self-esteem.

What is the impact of social norms on out-group homogeneity, as mentioned in the text?

Out-group homogeneity reflects standardized societal beliefs that have become social norms, leading to the persistent view of all out-group members as similar to each other.

Explain the difference between explicit attitudes and implicit attitudes towards other social groups.

Explicit attitudes towards other social groups can be consciously controlled, while implicit attitudes are triggered automatically and cannot be controlled.

What is the Implicit Association Test (IAT) used for?

The Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures implicit attitudes towards social groups.

Describe the concept of social dominance orientation proposed by Sidanius.

Social dominance orientation measures the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for a hierarchy in society.

According to Adorno et al., what did they propose the existence of that makes people more likely to be prejudiced or hostile towards specific ethnic groups?

Adorno et al. proposed the existence of an authoritarian personality type.

What is the impact of social norms on prejudice according to the text?

Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors.

What is the role of cognitive loop in strengthening existing prejudice?

Cognitive loop strengthens existing prejudice by confirming beliefs about a particular group.

Explain the difference between racism and sexism in terms of the basis of prejudice.

Racism is prejudice based on ethnic group membership; sexism is prejudice based on gender.

What is the main focus of most social psychological research in relation to prejudice?

Most social psychological research has focused on negative attitudes associated with prejudice.

What is the significance of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in understanding attitudes towards social groups?

The Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures implicit attitudes towards social groups, which cannot be consciously controlled.

How do social norms compare to individual factors in their impact on prejudice according to the text?

Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors.

What is the explanation given for people holding prejudiced thoughts and feelings but not publicly acting upon them?

People may hold prejudiced thoughts and feelings but not publicly act upon them due to social unacceptability.

According to Rokeach's theory, what does it measure and what is its aim?

Rokeach's theory measures dogmatism and aims to allow for high-scoring individuals from either the right or the left wing.

Study Notes

Understanding Prejudice and Stereotypes

  • Prejudice is a positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership, with most focus on negative attitudes.
  • People may hold prejudiced thoughts and feelings without publicly acting on them due to social unacceptability.
  • Cognitive loops can strengthen existing prejudice by reinforcing beliefs about particular groups.
  • Racism is prejudice based on ethnic group membership, while sexism is based on gender.
  • Implicit attitudes, triggered automatically, can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
  • Adorno et al. proposed the existence of an authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice, measured by the "Fascism scale" (F scale).
  • Rokeach's theory of the open and closed mind aimed to measure dogmatism, allowing for high scores across political spectrums.
  • Sidanius proposed the concept of social dominance orientation, measuring the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy.
  • Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors, and prejudicial attitudes are specific to certain minority groups.
  • Intergroup conflict often arises from fights over scarce resources, leading to prejudice and hostility.
  • Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments demonstrated that the mere categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases.
  • Social identity theory explains the phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups.

Understanding Prejudice and Stereotypes

  • Prejudice is a positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership, with most focus on negative attitudes.
  • People may hold prejudiced thoughts and feelings without publicly acting on them due to social unacceptability.
  • Cognitive loops can strengthen existing prejudice by reinforcing beliefs about particular groups.
  • Racism is prejudice based on ethnic group membership, while sexism is based on gender.
  • Implicit attitudes, triggered automatically, can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
  • Adorno et al. proposed the existence of an authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice, measured by the "Fascism scale" (F scale).
  • Rokeach's theory of the open and closed mind aimed to measure dogmatism, allowing for high scores across political spectrums.
  • Sidanius proposed the concept of social dominance orientation, measuring the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy.
  • Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors, and prejudicial attitudes are specific to certain minority groups.
  • Intergroup conflict often arises from fights over scarce resources, leading to prejudice and hostility.
  • Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments demonstrated that the mere categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases.
  • Social identity theory explains the phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups.

Understanding Prejudice and Stereotypes

  • Prejudice is a positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership, with most focus on negative attitudes.
  • People may hold prejudiced thoughts and feelings without publicly acting on them due to social unacceptability.
  • Cognitive loops can strengthen existing prejudice by reinforcing beliefs about particular groups.
  • Racism is prejudice based on ethnic group membership, while sexism is based on gender.
  • Implicit attitudes, triggered automatically, can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
  • Adorno et al. proposed the existence of an authoritarian personality type linked to prejudice, measured by the "Fascism scale" (F scale).
  • Rokeach's theory of the open and closed mind aimed to measure dogmatism, allowing for high scores across political spectrums.
  • Sidanius proposed the concept of social dominance orientation, measuring the desire to dominate lower status groups and preference for hierarchy.
  • Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors, and prejudicial attitudes are specific to certain minority groups.
  • Intergroup conflict often arises from fights over scarce resources, leading to prejudice and hostility.
  • Tajfel et al.'s minimal group experiments demonstrated that the mere categorization of individuals into groups leads to negative out-group attitudes and positive in-group biases.
  • Social identity theory explains the phenomenon of in-group and out-group biases fostered by the existence of two groups.

Understanding Prejudice and Stereotypes

  • Prejudice is a positive or negative attitude towards a person based on their group membership.
  • Most social psychological research has focused on negative attitudes associated with prejudice.
  • People may hold prejudiced thoughts and feelings but not publicly act upon them due to social unacceptability.
  • Cognitive loop strengthens existing prejudice by confirming beliefs about a particular group.
  • Racism is prejudice based on ethnic group membership; sexism is prejudice based on gender.
  • Explicit attitudes towards other social groups can be consciously controlled, while implicit attitudes are triggered automatically and cannot be controlled.
  • The Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures implicit attitudes towards social groups.
  • Adorno et al. proposed the existence of an authoritarian personality type that makes people more likely to be prejudiced or hostile towards specific ethnic groups.
  • Rokeach's theory measures dogmatism and aims to allow for high-scoring individuals from either the right or the left wing.
  • Sidanius proposed the concept of social dominance orientation, where people differ in their desire to dominate lower status groups and their preference for a hierarchy in society.
  • Social norms have a greater impact on prejudice than individual factors.
  • Intergroup conflict often emerges from fights over scarce resources, leading to prejudice and hostility.

Test your knowledge of prejudice and stereotypes with this quiz. Explore topics such as the nature of prejudice, cognitive processes that reinforce stereotypes, and influential theories like social identity theory and the authoritarian personality. Challenge your understanding of implicit attitudes, intergroup conflict, and the impact of social norms on prejudicial attitudes.

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