Physiological Processes Quiz

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64 Questions

What is the main factor affecting flow in a vessel?

Vessel radius

How does viscosity affect resistance and flow?

Increased viscosity increases resistance and decreases flow

What is the relationship between flow rate and velocity?

Flow rate is directly related to velocity

How does distance affect the pressure of a fluid in motion?

The longer the distance, the more friction, causing more resistance and decreased pressure

Which type of capillary has the highest permeability and is found in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen?

Sinusoids

What is the main driving force for capillary filtration?

Hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end

Which component of plasma is responsible for the colloid osmotic pressure?

Proteins

What is the primary function of the lymphatic system?

Drain excess tissue fluid

Which blood cell type is responsible for oxygen transport in the body?

Erythrocytes

What is the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on capillary filtration and absorption balance?

Promotes filtration and inhibits absorption

Which method of capillary exchange involves the movement of large molecules or particles across the endothelial cells?

Transcytosis

What is the function of baroreceptor reflex in the body?

Maintains blood pressure

Which type of capillary has the least permeability and is found in muscle, nervous system, and connective tissue?

Continuous capillaries

What is the primary effect of sympathetic nervous system activation on vessel action potentials?

Vasoconstriction

What is the main function of leukocytes in the body?

Immune defense

What is the driving force for capillary absorption of fluid and solutes?

Osmotic pressure at the venular end

During which phase of the cardiac cycle does isovolumic contraction and relaxation occur?

Ventricular diastole

What is the formula to calculate stroke volume?

SV = EDV - ESV

What is the primary factor influencing venous return to the heart?

Skeletal muscle pump

Which component of the autonomic nervous system influences heart rate by releasing acetylcholine?

Parasympathetic nervous system

What are the factors influencing stroke volume?

Contractility, venous return, Frank-Starling law

Which blood vessel has the smallest diameter and highest resistance?

Capillary

What is the formula for calculating cardiac output?

CO = SV / HR

Which type of blood vessel experiences the largest drop in blood pressure?

Arteriole

What is the primary factor affecting mean arterial pressure (MAP)?

Peripheral resistance

Which type of nervous system control influences heart rate by releasing norepinephrine?

Sympathetic nervous system

What is the primary mechanism for influencing blood pressure in the body?

Resistance

Which factor contributes to the regulation of blood pressure by altering blood volume?

Renal system

What is the resting membrane potential (RMP) of a cardiac contractile cell?

-90mV

What is the primary function of autorhythmic cells in the heart?

Generating action potentials

What occurs during the plateau phase of a cardiac action potential?

Fast potassium voltage gates close and calcium voltage gates open

What is the approximate percentage of autorhythmic cells in the heart?

Less than 2%

Which cells in the heart contract through a series of steps involving calcium release and binding to troponin?

Contractile cardiac cells

What is the primary reason for the longer refractory period of cardiac cells compared to skeletal muscle cells?

The plateau phase allowing for complete contraction and relaxation

What is the approximate percentage of contractile cells in the heart?

98%

Which law describes the relationship between velocity and the cross-sectional area of the tube?

Poiseuille’s Law

What is the primary function of the conducting system of the heart?

Depolarizing and coordinating the heart's contractions

What do the ECG waves primarily represent?

Atrial and ventricular depolarization and repolarization

What is the primary reason for the longer refractory period of cardiac cells compared to skeletal muscle cells?

The plateau phase allowing for complete contraction and relaxation

What are the mechanical events of the cardiac cycle primarily responsible for?

Atrial filling, ventricular ejection, and ventricular relaxation

Which of the following is a function of the pleural sac?

Preventing friction and maintaining lung inflation

What is the primary function of the pulmonary circulation pathway?

Transporting deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body

What is the primary role of surfactant in the respiratory system?

Preventing alveolar walls from collapsing

What is the primary function of the mucociliary escalator in the respiratory system?

Trapping and removing pathogens using mucous, saline, and cilia

Which law describes the relationship between the volume of a container and the pressure inside?

Boyle's law

What affects the total pulmonary ventilation?

Air entering the airways

Which factor primarily affects gas diffusion rate in the respiratory system?

Surface area

What is hypoxia?

A decrease in oxygen levels

What is hypercapnia?

An increase in carbon dioxide levels

What determines the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin?

Partial pressure and affinity

What is the primary function of alveolar macrophages in the respiratory system?

Immunity

What is the primary function of the respiratory system?

Gas exchange

Which protein transports iron in plasma to either the liver for storage as ferritin or to the bone marrow to form hemoglobin inside red blood cells?

Transferrin

What are the primary functions of the respiratory system?

Gas exchange, regulation of body pH, protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances, and vocalization

What is the double-layered membrane around the lungs that prevents friction, maintains lung inflation, and stores pleural fluid?

Pleural sac

Which cells of the alveolar sacs are responsible for respiration/gas exchange?

Type 1 cells

What is the pulmonary circulation pathway involving after the right ventricle?

Pulmonary trunk, arteries, capillaries, venules, veins, and left atrium

Which law states that the sum of partial pressures in a container equals the total gas pressure?

Dalton's law

According to Boyle’s law, what happens to the pressure inside a container when the volume of the container decreases?

The pressure increases

Which lung volume represents the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation?

Expiratory reserve volume

During quiet breathing, what happens to the intrapleural pressure during inhalation?

Decreases

What is the role of surfactant in the lungs?

Decreases alveolar surface tension

What is the measure of air entering the airways and fresh air reaching the alveoli?

Alveolar ventilation

What does hypoxia refer to?

Decrease in oxygen levels

Study Notes

Baroreceptor Reflex and Capillary Exchange

  • The sympathetic nervous system's effect on vessel action potentials: vasoconstriction or vasodilation
  • Baroreceptor reflex: maintains blood pressure, sends blood pressure info to medulla, triggers compensation processes
  • Different types of capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, sinusoids, with varied permeabilities and locations
  • Capillary blood flow velocity: slowest due to large cross-sectional area
  • Methods of capillary exchange: diffusion, transcytosis, bulk flow, paracellular, and transcellular
  • Colloid osmotic pressure: due to solute, drives absorption
  • Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure differences at arterial and venular ends, affecting filtration and absorption
  • Functions of the lymphatic system: drain excess tissue fluid, clean lymph, transport fats
  • Edema: swelling
  • Factors disrupting capillary filtration and absorption balance: high hydrostatic pressure, decreased osmotic pressure, tissue osmotic pressure
  • Plasma components: water, proteins, ions, organic molecules, gases, trace elements, vitamins
  • Blood cells functions and types: erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes)

Respiratory System Physiology and Gas Exchange

  • Iron is ingested from the diet and absorbed by active transport, with transferrin protein transporting iron in plasma to either the liver for storage as ferritin or to the bone marrow to form hemoglobin inside red blood cells.
  • Hemostasis involves vasoconstriction, forming a platelet plug, and then forming a clot.
  • The primary functions of the respiratory system are gas exchange, regulation of body pH, protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances, and vocalization.
  • The pleural sac is a double-layered membrane around the lungs that prevents friction, maintains lung inflation, and stores pleural fluid.
  • Cells of the alveolar sacs include type 1 (for respiration/gas exchange), type 2 (secreting surfactant), and alveolar macrophages (for immunity).
  • The pulmonary circulation pathway involves the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, arteries, capillaries, venules, veins, and left atrium.
  • The mucociliary escalator traps and removes pathogens using mucous, saline, and cilia, with the cells secreting saline and utilizing a paracellular pathway for movement.
  • Dalton’s law states that the sum of partial pressures in a container equals the total gas pressure, while partial pressure is the pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture.
  • Gas particles move down a concentration gradient, following Boyle’s law which states that changing the volume of a container changes the pressure inside.
  • Lung volumes and capacities include tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity.
  • Pressure changes in the lungs during quiet breathing involve intrapleural pressure decreasing during inhalation and increasing during exhalation, while alveolar pressure decreases during inhalation and increases during exhalation.
  • Surfactant is a detergent that prevents alveolar walls from collapsing by breaking down water polar molecules in alveoli. Airway resistance is affected by factors like radius, air flow, bronchodilation, and bronchoconstriction. Total pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation are measures of air entering the airways and fresh air reaching the alveoli, respectively.
  • Hypoxia is a decrease in oxygen levels, while hypercapnia is an increase in carbon dioxide levels. Sensors respond to oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and pH to avoid hypoxia and hypercapnia. Gas diffusion rate is affected by surface area, concentration gradient, barrier permeability, and diffusion distance. Oxygen is transported in blood and its binding to hemoglobin is determined by partial pressure and affinity.

Test your knowledge of physiological processes with these quizzes on baroreceptor reflex and capillary exchange, cardiac physiology overview, and respiratory system physiology and gas exchange. Explore topics such as blood pressure regulation, cardiac cell action potentials, gas exchange in the lungs, and more.

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