Phylum Porifera: Sponges and Parazoa

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31 Questions

What is the function of pinacocytes in sponges?

Phagocytosis of larger particles

Which cells in sponges are responsible for exhibiting flagella and the filter feeding system?

Choanocytes

What is the function of amoebocytes in sponges?

Digestion and transportation

What is the role of grey cells in sponges?

Immune rejection

What is the composition of the skeleton in sponges?

CaCo3 or SiO2

How do sponges primarily obtain O2 for respiration?

By diffusion through their body wall

Which phylum exhibits both polymorphism and alternation of generation in their life cycle?

Phylum Cnidaria

Which phylum has an incomplete digestive cavity and one opening in the body that serves both for food ingestion and egestion?

Phylum Cnidaria

Which class of Platyhelminthes is a non-ciliated parasitic flatworm or fluke?

Trematoda

Which phylum is characterized by having a central gastrovascular cavity communicating to the exterior by the mouth and tentacles provided with nematocysts for food capture and defense?

Phylum Cnidaria

Which phylum has a blind-sac body plan and possesses a ladder-like nervous system comprising the brain and two main longitudinal nerve cords connected at intervals by transverse commissures?

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Which phylum exhibits radial or biradial symmetry and a phenomenon of polymorphism, including both polyps and medusae?

Phylum Cnidaria

Which phylum is mostly marine but also includes a few freshwater forms like Hydra?

Phylum Cnidaria

In which phylum are the nervous system and excretory system described as one or more network of nerve cells and neurites located in the ectoderm and endoderm, and flame cells leading into tubules that open out by one or more excretory pores?

Platyhelminthes

Which class of Cnidaria consists of free-swimming and sexual zooids?

Scyphozoa

Which scientist is credited with coining the name 'Protozoa'?

Goldfuss

What is the size range of protozoa, as mentioned in the text?

2 micron to 250 micron

Which of the following phylum is Protozoa considered to be a connecting link between?

Plants and animals

Which type of nutrition is mentioned for Protozoa in the text?

Holozoic, holophytic, mixotrophic, saprozoic or parasitic

Which protozoan body part can be covered by pellicle or shells, as mentioned in the text?

Body

What is the primary form of organization of protozoa, as per the information provided?

Protoplasmic level of organization

Which subphylum of protozoans does not contain any organelles for locomotion?

Sporozoa

What is the primary mode of reproduction in protozoans?

Binary fission

Which superclass of protozoans includes organisms with bodies covered by plasmalemma or pellicle and are mostly free-living or some are parasitic?

Superclass A: Mastigophora

Which subclass of protozoans exhibits numerous cilia-like organelles on their entire body and engage in syngamy with flagellated anisogamete?

Opalinata

Which phylum is characterized by having a blind-sac body plan, pseudopodia locomotory organelles, and forms gametes and flagellates young once?

Sarcodina

Which superclass of protozoans primarily consists of organisms with bodies covered by plasmalemma or pellicle and engage in binary fission?

Superclass A: Mastigophora

Which class of protozoans possesses chromatophores and one to two flagella, and are mostly free-living?

Phytomastigophorea

Which subclass of protozoans has amoeboid forms with some having half shells but do not form spores?

Sarcodina

Which subclass of protozoans exhibit amoeboid forms, some with half shells, and do not form spores?

Sarcodina

Which phylum of protozoans is primarily characterized by the absence of organelles for locomotion in adults?

Sporozoa

Study Notes

Sponges

  • Pinacocytes are cellular components responsible for the outer epithelial layer of sponges.
  • Choanocytes (also known as collar cells) are responsible for exhibiting flagella and the filter feeding system in sponges.
  • Amoebocytes are responsible for various functions, including digestion, nutrient transport, and spicule formation in sponges.
  • Grey cells are presumed to be responsible for the transmission of nervous impulses in sponges.
  • The skeleton of sponges is composed of spicules, which can be made of silica or calcium carbonate.
  • Sponges primarily obtain oxygen for respiration through diffusion.

General Phyla Characteristics

  • Phylum Cnidaria exhibits both polymorphism and alternation of generation in their life cycle.
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes has an incomplete digestive cavity and one opening in the body that serves both for food ingestion and egestion.
  • Class Trematoda of Platyhelminthes consists of non-ciliated parasitic flatworms or flukes.
  • Phylum Cnidaria is characterized by having a central gastrovascular cavity communicating to the exterior by the mouth and tentacles provided with nematocysts for food capture and defense.
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes has a blind-sac body plan and possesses a ladder-like nervous system comprising the brain and two main longitudinal nerve cords connected at intervals by transverse commissures.
  • Phylum Cnidaria exhibits radial or biradial symmetry and a phenomenon of polymorphism, including both polyps and medusae.
  • Phylum Cnidaria is mostly marine but also includes a few freshwater forms like Hydra.

Nervous and Excretory Systems

  • In Phylum Platyhelminthes, the nervous system and excretory system are described as one or more network of nerve cells and neurites located in the ectoderm and endoderm, and flame cells leading into tubules that open out by one or more excretory pores.

Cnidaria

  • Class Cubozoa of Cnidaria consists of free-swimming and sexual zooids.

Protozoa

  • The term 'Protozoa' was coined by scientist Georg Goldfuss.
  • The size range of protozoa is from 10-50 μm to several millimeters.
  • Protozoa is considered to be a connecting link between the Animal and Plant Kingdoms.
  • Protozoa exhibit holophytic and saprozoic nutrition.
  • The body of protozoa can be covered by pellicle or shells.
  • The primary form of organization of protozoa is unicellular.
  • Subphylum Mastigophora of protozoans does not contain any organelles for locomotion.
  • The primary mode of reproduction in protozoans is binary fission.
  • Superclass Sarcodina of protozoans includes organisms with bodies covered by plasmalemma or pellicle and are mostly free-living or some are parasitic.
  • Subclass Opalinata of protozoans exhibits numerous cilia-like organelles on their entire body and engage in syngamy with flagellated anisogamete.
  • Phylum Rhizopoda is characterized by having a blind-sac body plan, pseudopodia locomotory organelles, and forms gametes and flagellates young once.
  • Superclass Ciliophora of protozoans primarily consists of organisms with bodies covered by plasmalemma or pellicle and engage in binary fission.
  • Class Phytomastigophora of protozoans possesses chromatophores and one to two flagella, and are mostly free-living.
  • Subclass Rhizopoda of protozoans has amoeboid forms with some having half shells but do not form spores.
  • Phylum Amoeba of protozoans is primarily characterized by the absence of organelles for locomotion in adults.

Test your knowledge about Phylum Porifera, which includes pore bearers, sponges, and Parazoa. Explore the characteristics, cellular organization, and functions of these multicellular, diploblastic aquatic organisms.

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