Phylum Chordata: Deuterostomes Lecture Notes

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46 Questions

Which of the following is not a key feature present at some point in the life cycle of all chordates?

Jointed appendages

Which subphylum of nonvertebrate chordates includes barrel-shaped, sessile, filter-feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons?

Subphylum Urochordata

What is the flexible, fibrous rod along the back of chordates, which is replaced by vertebrae in advanced vertebrates?

Notochord

In which subphylum of nonvertebrate chordates are all four key chordate features present in adults?

Subphylum Cephalochordata

What do Urochordates, such as sea squirts and tunicates, primarily use for filter-feeding?

Incurrent and excurrent siphons

Which of the following subphyla of nonvertebrate chordates essentially has no brain in adults?

Subphylum Cephalochordata

What is the main characteristic that distinguishes Subphylum Vertebrata from other organisms?

Presence of a head with brain and skull

Which class of living craniates are considered tetrapods?

Amphibia

What is the evolutionary significance of Class Acanthodii (Acanthodians)?

They were the first successful group of jawed fishes

What is the distinctive feature of the endoskeleton in Subphylum Vertebrata?

Composed of compacted collagen protein fibers

What is the main characteristic of fishes in terms of their limbs?

Absence of any limbs

What makes bone an excellent material for fossilization?

It provides rigidity due to calcium phosphate deposition

What is the major distinguishing feature of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes)?

Evolution of jaws

What is the unique function of the neural crest ectoderm in Subphylum Vertebrata?

Involvement in forming a variety of structures during development

What is the main characteristic of the circulatory system in fishes?

Single-loop blood circulation system

What distinguishes placoderms from other extinct clades?

Armored fishes

What is the function of the flexible, fibrous rod in chordates, which is replaced by vertebrae in advanced vertebrates?

It provides structural support and protects the nerve cord.

In which subphylum of nonvertebrate chordates are all four key chordate features present in adults?

Cephalochordata

What is the distinctive feature of the endoskeleton in Subphylum Vertebrata?

It is composed of bone or cartilage and is internal to the body.

Which class of living craniates are considered tetrapods?

Amphibia

What distinguishes placoderms from other extinct clades?

They had a bony exoskeleton and jaws.

What is the main characteristic that distinguishes Subphylum Vertebrata from other organisms?

Presence of a notochord and pharyngeal slits at some stage of development.

What is the primary distinguishing characteristic of the notochord in chordates?

It is a flexible, fibrous rod along the back

Which subphylum of nonvertebrate chordates includes barrel-shaped, sessile, filter-feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons?

Urochordata

What makes bone an excellent material for fossilization?

Its ability to be replaced by vertebrae in advanced vertebrates

What is the main characteristic of the circulatory system in fishes?

Double-loop circulation

What is the evolutionary significance of Class Acanthodii (Acanthodians)?

First appearance of jaws

What class of living craniates are considered tetrapods?

Amphibia

What is the major distinguishing feature of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes)?

Presence of jaws

What is the distinctive feature of the endoskeleton in Subphylum Vertebrata?

It contains bones or cartilage

What is the unique function of the neural crest ectoderm in Subphylum Vertebrata?

Generation of neurons and other tissues

In which subphylum of nonvertebrate chordates are all four key chordate features present in adults?

Cephalochordata

What is the main characteristic that distinguishes Subphylum Vertebrata from other organisms?

Presence of vertebral column or backbone

What distinguishes placoderms from other extinct clades?

Presence of jaws and paired fins

What is the primary function of a housefly's strong sense of smell?

Locating food sources, mates, and predators

How do houseflies regulate their body temperature?

Through their environment

What distinguishes Archaebacteria from bacteria?

Ability to thrive in extreme environments

Which of the following is an important role of Archaebacteria in biogeochemical cycles?

Production and consumption of methane and carbon dioxide

What is the unique metabolism of Archaebacteria reliant on?

Alternative energy sources such as hydrogen and sulfur

In what way are houseflies and Archaebacteria similar?

Both have complex characteristics related to their environment

What is the primary source of food for houseflies?

Decaying organic matter, sweet substances, and microbes

How do houseflies communicate with each other?

Using pheromones and body language

What is the lifespan of a typical housefly?

Approximately 28 days

What is the most significant role of houseflies in the context of disease transmission?

Transmitting pathogens through their saliva and feces

Which stage of development do houseflies undergo complete metamorphosis?

Pupa

Where are Archaebacteria commonly found?

Soil, water, and hot springs

Study Notes

  • Musca domestica (housefly) and Archaebacteria are two distinct organisms.
  • Houseflies are insects that belong to the genus Musca. They are 2-4 mm long and have a lifespan of approximately 28 days.
  • Houseflies are ectothermic organisms, meaning they regulate their body temperature through their environment.
  • Houseflies have a complex digestive system that allows them to feed on a wide range of materials, including decaying organic matter, sweet substances, and microbes.
  • Houseflies are important vectors of disease, transmitting pathogens through their saliva and feces. They can carry and spread diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and dysentery.
  • Houseflies have a strong sense of smell, which they use to locate food sources, mates, and predators.
  • Houseflies have a complex social structure and live in groups called swarms. They communicate with each other using pheromones and body language.
  • Houseflies undergo complete metamorphosis, going through four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
  • Archaebacteria are a group of microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria. They are known for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, such as hot springs, deep sea vents, and acidic or alkaline conditions.
  • Archaebacteria have unique cell structures, including archaella and flagella, which help them move through their environment.
  • Archaebacteria are important in biogeochemical cycles, particularly in the production and consumption of methane and carbon dioxide.
  • Archaebacteria have a unique metabolism, relying on alternative energy sources such as hydrogen and sulfur.
  • Archaebacteria are important in the study of evolution, as they represent the earliest known life forms on Earth.
  • Archaebacteria are divided into several groups based on their metabolic and phylogenetic characteristics.
  • Archaebacteria are commonly found in environments such as soil, water, and hot springs.
  • Archaebacteria have a complex genetic structure, with some species having circular chromosomes and others having linear chromosomes.
  • Archaebacteria are important in biotechnology, and some species are used to produce industrial products such as enzymes, antibiotics, and food additives.

Learn about the key traits and features of Phylum Chordata (chordates) in this lecture notes on deuterostomes, notochord, jointed appendages, and segmentation. Understand the dorsal, hollow nerve cord, notochord, and pharyngeal gill slits present at some point in the life cycle of all chordates.

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