Round 2-SN Phylogenetics Study Guide

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18 Questions

Why is the fossil record considered biased and incomplete?

Soft tissue decomposes and is rarely preserved

What can molecular analysis reveal that differs from expectations based on morphological and fossil data?

Relationships

What is a way phylogenetic trees are used in conservation, as mentioned in the text?

To understand environmental pressures and combat poaching

How are phylogenies crucial in the understanding of viruses, diseases, and cancer?

They can be used to study disease spread

What are homologies in evolutionary biology?

Structural similarities due to common ancestry

What is radiometric dating used to determine?

The absolute timing of speciation

What is the half-life of Carbon-14?

5,700 years

What is the traditional classification system of living things separated into?

Five different kingdoms

What is systematics?

The study of both taxonomy and phylogenetics

What are morphological traits used for in phylogenetics?

To classify organisms based on shared traits due to common ancestry

What do ancestral vs derived characters, synapomorphy, and outgroup comparison help identify in phylogenetic analysis?

Traits and evolutionary relationships

What is the purpose of an outgroup comparison in identifying traits in phylogenetic analysis?

To distinguish ancestral from derived characters

What are the three domains in the three-domain system of classification?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

When does convergent evolution occur?

When similar adaptations develop independently in unrelated organisms living in similar environments

Which isotopes are used to date items that are 10 million to 4.5 billion years old?

Potassium-40 and Uranium-238

What is the inability of phylogenetics to account for rapid speciation events and evolutionary reversals an example of?

Limitation in capturing all aspects of evolutionary history

List the hierarchical classification system used in taxonomy (list each 7 of the classifications separated by commas).

• Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species

The rules for binomial nomenclature are relatively lenient in the scientific community.

False

Test your knowledge of phylogenetics with this challenging study guide on SN Phylogenetics. Explore questions about the biases and limitations of the fossil record, as well as the insights gained from molecular analysis. Sharpen your understanding of evolutionary biology and phylogenetic relationships with this quiz.

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