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Phlebotomy Techniques: Drawing Blood

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60 Questions

What is the primary purpose of discussing the procedure with the patient during phlebotomy?

To obtain informed consent and reduce anxiety

Which of the following veins is commonly used for phlebotomy?

All of the above

What is the recommended angle for inserting the needle during phlebotomy?

30-degree angle

What is the primary function of a tourniquet in phlebotomy?

To restrict blood flow

What is a common symptom of renal failure?

Fatigue

What is the primary characteristic of kidney stones?

Hard deposits formed from minerals and salts

What is the primary symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Frequent urination

What is the primary characteristic of diabetes?

High blood sugar levels

What is an essential step in the phlebotomy process?

Performing hand washing techniques

What is the final step in the phlebotomy process?

Cleaning up the space

What is a possible indication of high levels of blood acids in a patient's blood test results?

Ketones

What is a common symptom of urinary tract infections in pregnant women?

Frequent urination

What is the term for the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out of the heart?

Ventricle

What is the function of the kidneys in the urinary system?

To filter waste from blood and regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure

What is the term for a genetic disorder that impairs blood clotting?

Hemophilia

What is the correct pathway of blood through the circulatory system?

Artery --> arteriole --> venule --> capillary --> vein

What is the term for a blood vessel getting smaller in diameter?

Vasoconstriction

What is the term for white blood cells?

Leukocyte

What is the term for a condition characterized by decreased red blood cell count or hemoglobin levels?

Anemia

What is the term for a hard deposit formed in the kidneys?

Kidney Stone

What is the shape of a red blood cell?

Biconcave

What is the function of one-way valves in veins?

To prevent backflow

What is the primary site of destruction for aged red blood cells?

Liver and Spleen

What mineral is necessary for normal hemoglobin production?

Iron

What does hemoglobin carry in red blood cells?

Oxygen and nutrients

What type of blood flows through the pulmonary arteries?

Deoxygenated

What does a dark yellow color of urine indicate?

Dehydration

What does a fruity odor of urine indicate?

Breakdown of fats

What does cloudy urine indicate?

Urinary tract infection

What does the blood transport?

Hormones, heat, and nutrients

What is the primary function of the atria in the heart?

Receiving blood returning to the heart

What is the term for the condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries?

Atherosclerosis

What is the primary function of the kidneys in the urinary system?

Filtering waste from blood

What is the term for the presence of high levels of blood acids in a patient's blood test results?

Ketones

What is the primary function of the capillaries in the circulatory system?

Gas exchange between blood and tissues

What is the term for a bacterial infection in the urinary system?

UTI

What is the primary role of a clinical laboratory technician?

Conducting laboratory tests on blood and tissues

What is the term for the presence of glucose in a patient's urine?

Glucose

What is the primary function of the ureters in the urinary system?

Transporting urine from the kidneys to the bladder

What is the term for the cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow?

Leukemia

What is the primary reason for discussing the procedure with the patient during phlebotomy?

To confirm patient identity and tests being drawn

What is the typical vein used for phlebotomy?

Antecubital fossa

What is the primary function of a radiologist?

To provide diagnostic reports to referring physicians

What is the term for a blood vessel getting smaller in diameter?

Vasoconstriction

What is the purpose of using a tourniquet during phlebotomy?

To make the vein more visible

What is a common symptom of kidney stones?

Severe pain in the back, side, or lower abdomen

What is the normal percentage of hematocrit levels in the blood?

45% blood to 55% plasma

What is the final step in the phlebotomy process?

Cleaning up the space and disposing of sharps

What is the term for a Red Blood Cell?

Erythrocyte

What is the primary characteristic of renal failure?

Inability to filter waste products from blood

What is the primary function of plasma in the blood?

To carry nutrients, proteins, and platelets

What is the primary characteristic of diabetes?

High blood sugar levels

What does a pale yellow color of urine indicate?

Hydration

What is the recommended angle for inserting the needle during phlebotomy?

30-degree angle

What is the term for a White Blood Cell?

Leukocyte

What is the purpose of cleaning the area with an alcohol wipe during phlebotomy?

To clean the skin before inserting the needle

What is the term for a condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or hemoglobin levels?

Anemia

What is a common symptom of urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

Frequent urination and burning sensation during urination

What is the primary function of the atria in the heart?

To bring blood into the heart

What is the primary function of the spleen and liver in the circulatory system?

To destroy aged red blood cells

Study Notes

Phlebotomy Steps

  • Discuss with the patient what you will be doing and why, confirming patient name and tests being drawn.
  • Identify the vein to be used, commonly the antecubital fossa, median cephalic, or median basilic veins.
  • Gather needed supplies, perform proper hand washing techniques, and put on gloves.
  • Place a tourniquet and clean the area for 30 seconds with an alcohol wipe.
  • Insert the beveled needle at a 30-degree angle into the vessel, connecting vacutainers or using a syringe to drawback.
  • Properly label the tubes and send them to the laboratory for analysis.
  • Clean up space, ensuring all sharps are placed in a properly labeled sharps container.

Career Profiles

  • Clinical Laboratory Technician: conducts laboratory tests, prepares specimens, analyzes results, and reports findings to medical staff.
  • Pharmacist: dispenses medications, provides patient education, and reviews prescriptions for accuracy and potential drug interactions.
  • Pharmacy Technician: assists pharmacists, processes prescriptions, labels medication, and handles customer inquiries.
  • Phlebotomist: collects blood samples, ensures proper labeling and handling of specimens, and adheres to safety protocols.
  • Radiologist: interprets medical images, provides diagnostic reports, and requires extensive medical training and expertise in diagnostic imaging.
  • Radiographer: operates imaging equipment, positions patients correctly, and ensures image quality.

Urinary System

  • Kidneys: filter waste from blood, regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
  • Ureters: transport urine from kidneys to the bladder.
  • Bladder: stores urine.
  • Urethra: tube through which urine exits the body.
  • Conditions:
    • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): bacterial infection in the urinary tract.
    • Kidney Stones: hard deposits formed in the kidneys from minerals and salts.
    • Renal Failure: decreased kidney function leading to waste buildup in the body.

Circulation and Body Defense

  • Anatomy of the Heart:
    • Atria: upper chambers of the heart receiving blood.
    • Ventricles: lower chambers pumping blood out of the heart.
  • Blood Vessels:
    • Arteries: carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.
    • Veins: return oxygen-depleted blood to the heart.
    • Capillaries: tiny blood vessels where gas exchange occurs.
  • Blood:
    • Plasma: liquid portion of blood containing water, proteins, and other solutes.
    • Cells: red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets.
  • Conditions:
    • Anemia: decreased red blood cell count or hemoglobin levels.
    • Leukemia: cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including bone marrow.
    • Hemophilia: genetic disorder impairing blood clotting.
    • Sickle Cell Anemia: inherited disorder causing abnormal hemoglobin production.
    • Atherosclerosis: buildup of plaque in the arteries, narrowing blood flow.

Diagnostic Factors

  • Ketones: high levels of blood acids, indicating increased fat metabolism, potentially due to diabetes or fasting.
  • Proteins: presence in urine may indicate kidney damage or disease, dehydration, infection, or certain medications.
  • Glucose: presence in urine may indicate high blood sugar levels, often seen in uncontrolled diabetes.
  • hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin): presence indicates pregnancy, used in pregnancy tests to detect early signs of pregnancy.
  • Patient History: provides insights into past medical conditions, medications, lifestyle habits, and family history.
  • Vital Signs: blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature, which may indicate systemic issues or organ dysfunction.
  • Color and Odor: changes in urine can provide clues about hydration levels, dietary habits, and certain medical conditions.

Blood

  • Composition: 45% blood to 55% plasma.
  • Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell): biconcave shape.
  • Leukocyte (White Blood Cell): part of the immune system.
  • Thrombocyte (Platelet): involved in blood clotting.
  • Hemoglobin: carries oxygen in red blood cells, an oxygen transporter, and a pigment in blood.
  • Hematocrit levels: 45% blood to 55% plasma.

Urine Analysis

  • Color:
    • Dark yellow: dehydration.
    • Pale light yellow: hydration.
    • Orange/Red: blood in the urine (hematuria).
  • Odor:
    • Fruity: presence of ketones.
    • Foul: presence of bacteria.
  • Transparency:
    • Clear: normal urine samples.
    • Cloudy: potential UTI or presence of blood cells or pus.

Learn the steps involved in drawing blood safely and efficiently. This quiz covers the key procedures, including confirming patient information, identifying the vein, and gathering necessary supplies.

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