Pharmacology: Drug Absorption and Therapeutic Effects Quiz

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18 Questions

What is bioavailability?

Percentage of a drug absorbed into systemic circulation for activity.

Define half-life of a drug.

The time interval for the body’s elimination process to reduce the concentration of the drug in the body by half.

What is the significance of the peak concentration level of a drug?

Most of the drug reaches the site of action and provides the therapeutic response.

Explain the term 'Duration of action' of a drug.

Length of time a drug produces its therapeutic effect.

What is the primary focus of controlled substances Schedule I?

Highest risk for abuse.

What assessments are necessary for drug administration?

Determine food or drug allergies, obtain a drug history, obtain a medical history, and perform a physical examination.

What is the definition of half-life of a drug?

It is the time required for the total amount of drugs to decrease by 50%.

How do physiologic changes associated with aging influence medication effectiveness?

Physiologic changes such as decreased renal function and liver function can result in slower drug elimination and biotransformation, respectively.

What effect does an altered quality of organ responsiveness have on drug therapy?

Altered quality of organ responsiveness can lead to adverse effects becoming pronounced before therapeutic effects are achieved.

How can the route of administration affect drug absorption and bioavailability?

The area of the body where drug absorption takes place and bioavailability may change when the route of administration is altered.

What is the impact of anaphylactic reactions on drug therapy?

Anaphylactic reactions can be severe and life-threatening, requiring immediate medical intervention.

How does drug-drug interaction influence the elimination of certain drugs?

Drugs can affect the elimination of other drugs, leading to potential changes in blood concentration levels.

What is the purpose of giving a bolus dose of a drug?

To obtain a rapid effect of the drug.

How does plasma-protein binding affect the duration of drug action?

Strong attachments to plasma proteins result in a longer period of drug action.

What physiological condition may require an increased dose of a drug due to volume distribution?

Edema (swelling) in a client.

What barriers prevent some medications from entering certain body organs?

Blood-brain barrier and placental barrier.

How does body weight influence drug distribution?

Blood flows through fat slowly, delaying drug release.

What is the main factor determining the duration of drug action?

Half-life of the drug.

Study Notes

Pharmacology Basics

  • The time interval from drug administration to therapeutic effects is called the lag time.
  • Peak concentration level is the maximum blood concentration level achieved through absorption.
  • Duration of action is the length of time a drug produces its therapeutic effect.
  • Bioavailability is the percentage of a drug absorbed into systemic circulation for activity.

Drug Schedules

  • There are five schedules of controlled substances, classified based on their potential for abuse and physical/psychological dependence:
    • Schedule I: Highest risk for abuse
    • Schedule II: High potential for abuse, may lead to physical and psychological dependence
    • Schedule III: Lesser abuse potential
    • Schedule IV: Least abuse potential

Assessment for Drug Administration

  • Determine food or drug allergies
  • Obtain a drug history
  • Obtain a medical history
  • Perform a physical examination

Actions of Drugs on the Body

  • Half-life is the time interval for the body's elimination process to reduce the concentration of the drug in the body by half.
  • Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion affect drug excretion.
  • Drugs can affect the elimination of other drugs.

Physiologic Changes Associated with Aging

  • Altered memory
  • Less acute vision
  • Decreased renal function, resulting in slower elimination of drugs
  • Less complete and slower absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
  • Increased proportion of fat to lean body mass, facilitating retention of fat-soluble drugs and increasing potential for toxicity
  • Decreased liver function, hindering biotransformation of drugs
  • Decreased organ sensitivity, leading to underresponse to drugs
  • Altered quality of organ responsiveness, resulting in adverse effects becoming pronounced before therapeutic effects are achieved

Factors that Determine Proper Dosing Schedules

  • Route of administration affects bioavailability
  • Onset of action depends on drug concentration and route of administration
  • Dosage form affects drug release and absorption
  • Distribution is the transport of a drug from its site of absorption to its site of action

Plasma-Protein Binding and Volume Distribution

  • Medications bind to plasma proteins (albumin) in the vascular system
  • Strong attachments have a longer period of drug action
  • Clients with reduced plasma proteins may receive a heightened drug effect
  • Volume distribution is affected by edema or dehydration
  • Barriers to drug distribution include the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier
  • Obesity affects drug distribution due to slow blood flow through fat

Test your knowledge on drug absorption and therapeutic effects in pharmacology. Explore concepts such as time interval from administration to therapeutic effects, peak concentration level, duration of action, and bioavailability.

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