Personality Theories: Hippocrates' Four Temperaments

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What is the primary focus of personality according to the provided text?

long-standing traits and patterns

Which temperament is associated with the liver, according to Hippocrates' theory?

choleric

What is the Criticism of Franz Gall's theory?

it lacked empirical evidence

What are the two major axes that Wundt suggested for describing personality?

emotional/nonemotional and changeable/unchangeable

What is the characteristic of a phlegmatic person, according to Hippocrates' theory?

calm, reliable, and thoughtful

What is the primary distinction made by the second axis in terms of temperaments?

Between changeable and unchangeable temperaments

What is a key aspect of the Psychodynamic Perspective?

The focus on unconscious, repressed feelings

What is a key difference between Freud's theories and those of the neo-Freudians?

The emphasis on social environment versus biological drives

What is the focus of the Trait Theory of personality?

Using personality traits to predict job and partner compatibility

What was Anna O.'s condition, according to Freud's theories?

Hysteria

Study Notes

Early Theories of Personality

  • Hippocrates proposed that personality traits and human behaviors are based on four separate temperaments associated with four fluids (“humors”) of the body: choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic.
  • Galen built on Hippocrates's theory, suggesting that both diseases and personality differences could be explained by imbalances in the humors and that each person exhibits one of the four temperaments.

The Four Temperaments

  • Choleric temperament: passionate, ambitious, and bold.
  • Melancholic temperament: reserved, anxious, and unhappy.
  • Sanguine temperament: joyful, eager, and optimistic.
  • Phlegmatic temperament: calm, reliable, and thoughtful.

Wundt's Two Axes

  • The first axis: separates strong from weak emotions (melancholic and choleric temperaments from phlegmatic and sanguine).
  • The second axis: divides the changeable temperaments (choleric and sanguine) from the unchangeable ones (melancholic and phlegmatic).

Freud's Theory

  • According to Freud, unconscious drives influenced by sex and aggression, along with childhood sexuality, are the forces that influence our personality.
  • Freud was a medical doctor, not a psychologist, which is important to remember when reading his theories.

Case Study: Anna O.

  • Anna O. experienced symptoms such as partial paralysis, headaches, blurred vision, amnesia, and hallucinations, referred to as hysteria, while caring for her dying father.

Other Theories

  • Neo-Freudians: agreed with Freud but placed less emphasis on sex and more on the social environment’s effects on personality.
  • Behaviorist Perspective: personality comes from classical conditioning, operant conditioning, etc.
  • Humanistic Theory: focuses on free will and choice.
  • Trait Theory: focuses on what you can use your personality traits for, such as determining suitable jobs or partners.

Franz Gall's Theory

  • Franz Gall proposed that the distances between bumps on the skull reveal a person's personality traits, character, and mental abilities, but this was disproved due to a lack of empirical evidence.

Explore the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates' theory of personality, which proposes that human behaviors are influenced by four temperaments associated with bodily fluids. Test your knowledge of choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic temperaments. Discover how these temperaments shape individual personalities and behaviors.

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