Pancreas Anatomy and Function Quiz

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62 Questions

Which type of hormones act on plasma membrane receptors?

Water-soluble hormones

What is the mechanism of action for lipid-soluble hormones like steroids?

Act on intracellular receptors to directly activate genes

Which function is NOT associated with hormones?

Memory formation

What type of feedback system regulates hormone levels to maintain balance?

Negative feedback

Which of the following hormones can enter the cell?

Cortisol

What is the target location of water-soluble hormones' action?

Plasma membrane

Which gland stores and releases hormones made by the Hypothalamus?

Pituitary gland

What is the function of Oxytocin?

Contracting the uterus

Which hormone is responsible for keeping water in the body?

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

What is the effect of having high levels of T4 due to hyperthyroidism?

Hair loss

What does TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) target?

Thyroid Gland

What is a common symptom of hypothyroidism?

Hair loss

What is the primary function of hormones in the endocrine system?

Regulate metabolism and growth

Which type of stimulation triggers the production of insulin by the pancreas?

Humoral stimulation

What is the main role of hormone receptors in the body?

Provide a place for hormones to fit and have an effect

Which gland is responsible for producing hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands?

Pituitary gland

What is the relationship between hypothalamic hormones and pituitary gland function?

Hypothalamic hormones regulate the functions of the pituitary gland

Which physiological process is NOT directly influenced by hormones?

Muscle contraction

Which type of diabetes is characterized by hyposecretion of insulin?

Type 1

What is the function of insulin in the body?

Enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells

Which hormone is secreted by adrenal cortical hormones in response to stressors?

Norepinephrine

What is the function of glucagon in the body?

Low blood glucose levels

Which gland secretes melatonin and affects day/night cycles?

Pineal

Which hormone prepares the body for pregnancy?

Progesterone

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating osteoclasts to breakdown bone to release calcium into the blood?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

What is the main metabolic effect of cortisol?

Increased blood glucose levels

Which adrenal gland hormone primarily targets the kidneys to retain sodium and water, while increasing potassium excretion?

Mineralocorticoids

Which hormone is responsible for inducing gluconeogenesis in the liver?

Cortisol

What is the primary effect of adrenal gland catecholamines on blood vessels?

Vasoconstriction

Which hormone is responsible for increasing blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and indirectly water retention?

Aldosterone

What is the consequence of Congenital Hypothyroidism if not promptly treated?

Developmental issues and cognitive impairments

Which cells in the thyroid gland produce calcitonin?

Parafollicular cells

What is the function of calcitonin?

Reduce blood levels of calcium

What stimulates the production of calcitonin in the thyroid gland?

High levels of calcium in the blood

If a person has a congenital hypothyroid condition, what therapy is typically needed for treatment?

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

What is the role of colloid in the thyroid gland?

Synthesize thyroid hormone

Where are parafollicular cells located in relation to thyroid follicles?

Between or near the follicles

Which condition is characterized by insufficient production of thyroid hormones at birth?

Congenital Hypothyroidism

What is the potential consequence if Congenital Hypothyroidism is left untreated?

Developmental issues and cognitive impairments

Which component in the colloid is important for thyroid hormone synthesis?

Iodine atoms

What is the main difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system in terms of duration of effects?

The nervous system takes longer to have an effect, but the effect lasts for a shorter period compared to the endocrine system.

Which type of stimulation is triggered by blood levels and exemplified by the production of insulin in the pancreas?

Humoral stimulation

In the endocrine system, what is required in order for a hormone to have an effect on a particular place in the body?

Receptors

Which component allows hydrophobic hormones to travel through the blood stream?

Binding proteins

What is the primary function of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body?

Stimulating osteoblasts to build bone

Which adrenal gland zone secretes mineralocorticoids that target the kidneys to retain sodium?

Zona Glomerulosa

What is the main metabolic effect of cortisol in the body?

Inducing gluconeogenesis in the liver

Which hormone, when hypersecreted, leads to symptoms like moon face and weight gain?

Cortisol

What is the primary function of adrenal gland catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine?

Increasing blood glucose levels

Which hormone stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone for calcium release into the blood?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Which adrenal gland zone secretes glucocorticoids that inhibit inflammation and depress the immune system?

Zona Fasciculata

What is the main effect of mineralocorticoid aldosterone on the kidneys?

Promoting sodium retention

Which hormone prepares the body for stressful situations by increasing heart rate and blood glucose levels?

Epinephrine

What is the purpose of glucocorticoids like cortisol in the body?

Inhibiting inflammation and suppressing immune function

What effect does aldosterone have on potassium levels in the body?

Increases potassium excretion by the kidneys

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the Thyroid to produce more hormones?

TRH

What is the condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland?

Hashimoto's disease

What is the hormone that targets the Adrenal Cortex to produce its own hormones?

CRH

Which hormone is known as the 'pleasure hormone' and is responsible for stimulating milk release from mammary glands?

Oxytocin

What disorder is characterized by excessive T4 production due to the thyroid working too much?

Hyperthyroidism

Which hormone stimulates bones and muscles to undergo mitosis?

GH

Which hormone is involved in water retention in the kidneys?

ADH

Study Notes

Hormone Types and Mechanisms

  • Peptide and protein hormones act on plasma membrane receptors.
  • Lipid-soluble hormones like steroids act by binding to intracellular receptors, which then act as transcription factors.

Hormone Regulation and Feedback

  • Negative feedback systems regulate hormone levels to maintain balance.
  • Hypothalamic hormones stimulate or inhibit the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates other endocrine glands.

Hormone Functions and Glands

  • Oxytocin stimulates milk release from mammary glands and uterine contractions.
  • Vasopressin (ADH) keeps water in the body by regulating water reabsorption in the kidneys.
  • Hypothalamus stores and releases hormones that regulate other endocrine glands.
  • Pineal gland secretes melatonin, affecting day/night cycles.
  • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in cells, lowering blood glucose levels.

Thyroid Hormones

  • T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) regulate metabolism.
  • Hyperthyroidism (high T4 levels) can cause weight loss, anxiety, and tremors.
  • Hypothyroidism (low T4 levels) can cause fatigue, weight gain, and cold intolerance.
  • Calcitonin, produced by thyroid gland cells, lowers blood calcium levels by inhibiting bone resorption.

Adrenal Gland Hormones

  • Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, stimulates gluconeogenesis, suppressing the immune system and aiding in stress response.
  • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) target the kidneys to retain sodium and water, increasing potassium excretion.
  • Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) stimulate the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate and blood glucose levels.

Parathyroid Hormone and Calcium Regulation

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption and calcium reabsorption in the kidneys.

Endocrine System Characteristics

  • Hormones have a slower and more sustained effect compared to the nervous system.
  • Hormones require a specific receptor on target cells to have an effect.
  • Lipid-soluble hormones can travel through the bloodstream bound to proteins.

Test your knowledge on the anatomy and functions of the pancreas, including its exocrine and endocrine cells. Learn about acinar cells that produce enzyme-rich juice for digestion and the Islets of Langerhans containing alpha and beta cells responsible for producing glucagon and insulin.

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