Operations Management: Focused Work Centers and Focused Factories 9
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Operations Management: Focused Work Centers and Focused Factories 9

Learn about organized plant cells for specific production tasks and separate facilities for focused work cells in operations management. Explore the principles and benefits of focused work centers and focused factories.

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@CalmingDiscernment

Questions and Answers

What is the primary benefit of using three-dimensional visualization software in facility layout planning?

Improved process efficiency and safety assessment

What is a characteristic of a focused factory?

Matching facilities to customer requirements and demand

What is a key requirement for the success of a work cell?

Identification of families of products

What is a potential benefit of implementing work cells?

<p>Reduced raw material and finished goods inventories</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key aspect of employee empowerment in a work cell?

<p>A high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of a focused work center?

<p>A plant within a plant that moves production from a general-purpose facility</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of a fabrication line?

<p>To build components on a series of machines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is necessary to balance a fabrication line?

<p>Making mechanical or engineering changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of a focused factory?

<p>A separate facility that focuses on a specific product line or requirement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common requirement for both fabrication lines and assembly lines?

<p>Balancing so that the time to perform the work at each station is the same</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary objective of warehouse and storage layouts?

<p>To find the optimum trade-offs between handling costs and warehouse space costs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of increasing the number of different items stored on warehouse density?

<p>It decreases warehouse density</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of cross-docking?

<p>Materials are moved directly from receiving to shipping</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the benefit of using automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRSs)?

<p>It significantly improves warehouse productivity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of random stocking?

<p>To allow more efficient use of space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary objective of maximizing warehouse 'cube'?

<p>To minimize material handling costs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary benefit of using Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs)?

<p>Significant improvement in warehouse productivity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key requirement for the success of cross-docking operations?

<p>Tight scheduling and accurate shipments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of random stocking?

<p>To allow for more efficient use of space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key benefit of customizing warehouse operations?

<p>Enabling low cost and rapid response strategies</p> Signup and view all the answers

A focused work center is a separate facility.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Fabrication lines are paced by work tasks.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Both fabrication lines and assembly lines must be balanced.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Focused work cells are organized by product line.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Assembly lines build components on a series of machines.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Focused Work Center and Focused Factory

  • Focused Work Center: a plant within a plant, where cells are organized to focus on specific production tasks, moving away from general-purpose, process-oriented facilities.
  • Focused Factory: a separate facility that houses a focused work cell, which can be focused on product lines, layout, quality, new product introduction, flexibility, or other requirements.

Product-Oriented Layouts

  • Fabrication line: builds components on a series of machines, machine-paced, and requires mechanical or engineering changes to balance.
  • Assembly line: puts fabricated parts together at a series of workstations, paced by work tasks, and balanced by moving tasks.

Advantages of Product-Oriented Layouts

  • Advantages of fabrication and assembly lines include balanced production, reduced waste, and improved efficiency.

Computer Software in Layout Planning

  • Three-dimensional visualization software helps managers view possible layouts, assess process, material handling, efficiency, and safety issues.

Focused Facilities

  • Focused facilities are designed to match customer requirements and demand, reducing waste and capacity requirements.
  • They are suitable for a family of similar products with reasonably stable demand.

Work Cells

  • Work cells reorganize people and machines into groups to focus on single products or product groups.
  • Group technology identifies products with similar characteristics for particular cells.
  • Volume must justify the creation of cells, and cells can be reconfigured as designs or volume changes.

Requirements of Work Cells

  • Identification of families of products is necessary.
  • A high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment of employees is required.
  • Work cells should be self-contained, with their own equipment and resources.
  • Testing (poka-yoke) should be performed at each station in the cell.

Advantages of Work Cells

  • Reduced work-in-process inventory
  • Less floor space required
  • Reduced raw material and finished goods inventories
  • Reduced direct labor cost
  • Heightened sense of employee participation
  • Increased equipment and machinery utilization
  • Reduced investment in machinery and equipment

Warehouse and Storage Layouts

  • The objective is to find the optimum trade-offs between handling costs and costs associated with warehouse space.
  • Maximize the total "cube" of the warehouse, utilizing its full volume while maintaining low material handling costs.

Warehousing and Storage Layouts

  • Warehouse density tends to vary inversely with the number of different items stored.
  • Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) can significantly improve warehouse productivity.
  • Dock location is a key design element.

Cross-Docking

  • Materials are moved directly from receiving to shipping, without being placed in storage in the warehouse.
  • Requires tight scheduling and accurate shipments, with bar code or RFID identification used for advanced shipment notification.

Random Stocking

  • Typically requires automatic identification systems (AISs) and effective information systems.
  • Allows more efficient use of space.
  • Key tasks include:
    • Maintaining a list of “open” locations
    • Maintaining accurate records
    • Sequencing items to minimize travel, “pick” time
    • Combining picking orders
    • Assigning classes of items to particular areas

Customizing

  • Value-added activities performed at the warehouse, enabling low-cost and rapid response strategies.
  • Examples include:
    • Assembly of components
    • Loading software
    • Repairs
    • Customized labeling and packaging

Focused Work Center and Focused Factory

  • Focused Work Center: a plant within a plant, where cells are organized to focus on specific production tasks, moving away from general-purpose, process-oriented facilities.
  • Focused Factory: a separate facility that houses a focused work cell, which can be focused on product lines, layout, quality, new product introduction, flexibility, or other requirements.

Product-Oriented Layouts

  • Fabrication line: builds components on a series of machines, machine-paced, and requires mechanical or engineering changes to balance.
  • Assembly line: puts fabricated parts together at a series of workstations, paced by work tasks, and balanced by moving tasks.

Advantages of Product-Oriented Layouts

  • Advantages of fabrication and assembly lines include balanced production, reduced waste, and improved efficiency.

Computer Software in Layout Planning

  • Three-dimensional visualization software helps managers view possible layouts, assess process, material handling, efficiency, and safety issues.

Focused Facilities

  • Focused facilities are designed to match customer requirements and demand, reducing waste and capacity requirements.
  • They are suitable for a family of similar products with reasonably stable demand.

Work Cells

  • Work cells reorganize people and machines into groups to focus on single products or product groups.
  • Group technology identifies products with similar characteristics for particular cells.
  • Volume must justify the creation of cells, and cells can be reconfigured as designs or volume changes.

Requirements of Work Cells

  • Identification of families of products is necessary.
  • A high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment of employees is required.
  • Work cells should be self-contained, with their own equipment and resources.
  • Testing (poka-yoke) should be performed at each station in the cell.

Advantages of Work Cells

  • Reduced work-in-process inventory
  • Less floor space required
  • Reduced raw material and finished goods inventories
  • Reduced direct labor cost
  • Heightened sense of employee participation
  • Increased equipment and machinery utilization
  • Reduced investment in machinery and equipment

Warehouse and Storage Layouts

  • The objective is to find the optimum trade-offs between handling costs and costs associated with warehouse space.
  • Maximize the total "cube" of the warehouse, utilizing its full volume while maintaining low material handling costs.

Warehousing and Storage Layouts

  • Warehouse density tends to vary inversely with the number of different items stored.
  • Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) can significantly improve warehouse productivity.
  • Dock location is a key design element.

Cross-Docking

  • Materials are moved directly from receiving to shipping, without being placed in storage in the warehouse.
  • Requires tight scheduling and accurate shipments, with bar code or RFID identification used for advanced shipment notification.

Random Stocking

  • Typically requires automatic identification systems (AISs) and effective information systems.
  • Allows more efficient use of space.
  • Key tasks include:
    • Maintaining a list of “open” locations
    • Maintaining accurate records
    • Sequencing items to minimize travel, “pick” time
    • Combining picking orders
    • Assigning classes of items to particular areas

Customizing

  • Value-added activities performed at the warehouse, enabling low-cost and rapid response strategies.
  • Examples include:
    • Assembly of components
    • Loading software
    • Repairs
    • Customized labeling and packaging

Three-Dimensional Visualization Software

  • Allows managers to view possible layouts and assess process, material handling, efficiency, and safety issues

Focused Facilities

  • A family of similar products with reasonably stable demand
  • Match facilities to customer requirements and demand
  • Reduces waste and capacity requirements

Work Cells

  • Reorganizes people and machines into groups to focus on single products or product groups
  • Group technology identifies products that have similar characteristics for particular cells
  • Volume must justify cells
  • Cells can be reconfigured as designs or volume changes

Requirements of Work Cells

  • Identification of families of products
  • A high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment of employees
  • Self-contained, with its own equipment and resources
  • Testing (poka-yoke) at each station in the cell

Advantages of Work Cells

  • Reduced work-in-process inventory
  • Less floor space required
  • Reduced raw material and finished goods inventories
  • Reduced direct labor cost
  • Heightened sense of employee participation
  • Increased equipment and machinery utilization
  • Reduced investment in machinery and equipment

Warehouse and Storage Layouts

  • Objective is to find the optimum trade-offs between handling costs and costs associated with warehouse space
  • Maximize the total "cube" of the warehouse – utilize its full volume while maintaining low material handling costs

Warehousing and Storage Layouts

  • Warehouse density tends to vary inversely with the number of different items stored
  • Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) can significantly improve warehouse productivity
  • Dock location is a key design element

Cross-Docking

  • Materials are moved directly from receiving to shipping and are not placed in storage in the warehouse
  • Requires tight scheduling and accurate shipments, bar code or RFID identification used for advanced shipment notification as materials are unloaded

Random Stocking

  • Typically requires automatic identification systems (AISs) and effective information systems
  • Allows more efficient use of space
  • Key tasks include:
    • Maintaining a list of “open” locations
    • Maintaining accurate records
    • Sequencing items to minimize travel, “pick” time
    • Combining picking orders
    • Assigning classes of items to particular areas

Customizing

  • Value-added activities performed at the warehouse
  • Enables low-cost and rapid response strategies
  • Activities include:
    • Assembly of components
    • Loading software
    • Repairs
    • Customized labeling and packaging

Focused Work Center and Focused Factory

  • Focused Work Center:
    • Cells may be organized as focused work centers – plant within a plant
    • Moves production from a general-purpose, process-oriented facility to a large work cell
  • Focused Factory:
    • A focused work cell in a separate facility
    • May be focused by product line, layout, quality, new product introduction, flexibility, or other requirements

Product-Oriented Layouts

  • Fabrication line:
    • Builds components on a series of machines
    • Machine-paced
    • Require mechanical or engineering changes to balance
  • Assembly line:
    • Puts fabricated parts together at a series of workstations
    • Paced by work tasks
    • Balanced by moving tasks
  • Both types of lines must be balanced so that the time to perform the work at each station is the same

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