Operating System Concepts - Computer System Structure Quiz

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10 Questions

What is the main goal of an operating system?

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier

Which component of a computer system provides basic computing resources?

Hardware

What is the distinguishing feature of handheld computers in terms of resource optimization?

Optimized for usability and battery life

Which statement best describes the role of an operating system as a resource allocator?

Manages all resources and decides between conflicting requests for efficient use

In what way does an operating system act as a control program?

Controlling program execution to prevent errors and misuse of the computer

What is the primary function of the bootstrap program?

To initialize all aspects of the system and load the operating system kernel

Which of the following statements about firmware is correct?

Firmware is a specific type of software designed to act as an intermediary between software and hardware

In a computer system's operation, which component is responsible for a particular device type?

The device controller

What is the purpose of a local buffer in a device controller?

To store temporary data transferred between the device and the CPU

How does a device controller inform the CPU that it has finished its operation?

By causing an interrupt

Study Notes

Computer System Structure

  • A computer system can be divided into four components: hardware, operating system, application programs, and users.
  • Hardware provides basic computing resources such as CPU, memory, and I/O devices.
  • Operating system controls and coordinates the use of hardware among various applications and users.
  • Application programs define how system resources are used to solve computing problems for users.
  • Users can be people, machines, or other computers.

Bootstrap Program

  • A bootstrap program is loaded at power-up or reboot.
  • It is typically stored in ROM or EPROM, known as firmware.
  • The bootstrap program initializes all aspects of the system and loads the operating system kernel.

Firmware

  • Firmware is a specific type of software that acts as an intermediary between software and hardware.

Computer-System Operation

  • One or more CPUs and device controllers connect through a common bus providing access to shared memory.
  • The CPU and devices compete for memory cycles.
  • I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently.
  • Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type and has a local buffer.
  • The CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers.
  • I/O is from the device to the local buffer of the controller.
  • The device controller informs the CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt.

Interrupts

  • Interrupts transfer control to the interrupt service routine through the interrupt vector.
  • The interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction.
  • A trap or exception is a software-generated interrupt caused by an error or user request.

Operating System Goals

  • Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.
  • Make the computer system convenient to use.
  • Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

Operating System Definition

  • An operating system is a resource allocator that manages all resources and decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use.
  • An operating system is a control program that controls the execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer.

Test your knowledge on the components of a computer system and the goals of an operating system based on Operating System Concepts - 9th Edition. Learn about the structure of a computer system including hardware components and the role of an operating system as an intermediary between users and computer hardware.

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