Obtaining Food and Energy in Living Organisms

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What is the process by which autotrophs fulfill their carbon and energy requirements?

Photosynthesis

Which organisms use simple food material obtained from inorganic sources like carbon dioxide and water?

Green plants and some bacteria

What type of organisms directly or indirectly depend on autotrophs for their survival?

Animals

Which process is used by organisms to break down complex substances into simpler ones before they can be used for the upkeep and growth of the body?

Enzymatic catalysis

What is the source of energy and materials for living things?

Sunlight

What is the general requirement for energy and materials in all organisms?

Carbon dioxide and water

What serves as the internal energy reserve for plants?

Starch

What is the outcome of the process of photosynthesis?

Conversion of water and carbon dioxide to carbohydrates

What do desert plants do in relation to carbon dioxide uptake at night?

They prepare an intermediate acted upon by chlorophyll during the day

What do green dots in cells under a microscope represent?

Chloroplasts containing chlorophyll

What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?

Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

What are carbohydrates utilised for in plants?

Providing energy to the plant

What happens to the starch during photosynthesis?

It serves as an internal energy reserve for plants

What are the cell organelles containing chlorophyll called?

Chloroplasts

What is the main role of carbohydrates in photosynthesis?

Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates

What is the function of glycogen in human bodies?

Serving as the internal energy reserve

What enzyme in saliva breaks down starch into sugar?

Salivary amylase

What is the main function of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

Activating the enzyme pepsin

What is the role of mucus in the stomach?

Protecting the stomach lining from acid

What are peristaltic movements responsible for along the digestive tube?

Pushing food forward

What is the function of the muscular walls of the stomach?

Mixing food with digestive juices

What is the primary function of salivary amylase in the mouth?

Breaking down starch

What is the role of the anal sphincter at the end of the alimentary canal?

Regulating the release of waste material from the large intestine

What is the primary role of bile salts in the small intestine?

Emulsifying fats for efficient enzyme action

Which function does pancreatic juice NOT perform in the small intestine?

Neutralizing stomach acids

What is the main purpose of villi in the small intestine?

Increasing the surface area for absorption of digested food

What is the significance of extensive coiling in the small intestine?

It allows a longer small intestine to fit in a compact space

What determines the length of the small intestine in different animals?

The type of food they eat

Why do herbivores require a longer small intestine compared to carnivores?

To enable efficient digestion of cellulose in grass

What is the primary function of intestinal juice secreted by glands in the small intestine?

Final conversion of nutrients for absorption

What is the purpose of the liver secretions received by the small intestine?

To emulsify fats for efficient enzyme action

Why are meat-eating animals like tigers found to have a shorter small intestine compared to herbivores?

Because meat is easier to digest

This quiz explores how living organisms obtain food and energy. It discusses the general requirement for energy and materials common in all organisms, but fulfilled in different ways.

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