Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Reptiles

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40 Questions

What is the most rewarding radiography technique for tortoises with pneumonia?

Horizontal beam views

Which diagnostic method is indicated in all reptiles with pneumonia?

Tracheal wash

What is the primary purpose of wet-to-dry bandages in shell fracture repair?

To clear infection

Which treatment option for stomatitis can aid in specific diagnosis?

Culture

What is the primary cause of periodontal disease in agamids and chameleons?

Gingival inflammation and recession

What is a typical presentation of neurological disease in snakes?

Seizures and aggressive behavior

What is the cause of Inclusion Body Disease in Boids?

Infection with arenavirus

What is the primary cause of neurological signs, poor growth, and immunosuppression in bearded dragons?

Agamid adenovirus 1

What is the primary cause of Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Metabolic Bone Disease) in reptiles?

Inappropriate heating

What is the characteristic feature of blood phosphate in cases of Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Metabolic Bone Disease)?

Elevated levels

What is the recommended treatment for Post-Hibernation Anorexia in tortoises?

Fluid therapy and achieve urination

What is the purpose of an Oesophagostomy Tube in veterinary medicine?

To administer antibiotics

Which factor can compromise immunity and favor pathogens in tortoises during hibernation?

Chronic stress

What is the common cause of Runny Nose Syndrome in tortoises?

Viral infection

What is the recommended hibernation preparation for tortoises?

Decrease temperature gradually initially

When should intervention be considered for tortoises during hibernation?

Presence of any clinical signs

Why is it important to ensure familiarity with the species during the initial consultation for reptile medicine?

To identify any husbandry deficiencies specific to the species

Why is it recommended to set aside enough time for a full assessment of husbandry during the initial consultation?

To address husbandry before clinical disease results

Why is it important to observe the reptile prior to handling during the clinical examination?

To evaluate the reptile's response to stimuli

What is the purpose of developing a personal system for examination in reptile medicine?

To ensure no points are missed during examination

Why is it recommended to perform faecal analysis on every patient in reptile medicine?

To identify any parasites with a direct life cycle

What is the main reason for evaluating husbandry and making improvements during any consultation in reptile medicine?

To identify any husbandry deficiencies

What is the purpose of addressing husbandry before clinical disease results in reptile medicine?

To prevent clinical disease from occurring

Why is it important to carry out a systematic appraisal and analysis during the clinical examination in reptile medicine?

To ensure no points are missed during examination

What is the purpose of combined choanal and cloacal swabs for PCR in agamid adenovirus screening?

To detect the presence of the virus in both respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

What triggers vertebral cleavage leading to tail autoamputation in geckos?

Rough handling and acute stress

What is the recommended approach for treating urolithiasis in bearded dragons?

Flushing uroliths by instilling fluid into the cloaca and rectum

What is a characteristic symptom of osteomyelitis in geckos?

Swelling and pain in the affected area

Why is frequent defaecation important in preventing urolithiasis in bearded dragons?

To avoid dessication of urates in the colon

What is the natural defense mechanism for tail amputation in geckos triggered by?

Rough handling and acute stress

What should be done to minimize bleeding for tail amputations in geckos?

Utilize autoamputation to minimize bleeding

Why are choanal and cloacal swabs used for PCR testing in agamid adenovirus screening?

To comprehensively assess viral presence in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

Which parasite, when present in low numbers, is rarely significant in many reptile species and can be treated with fenbendazole?

Pinworms

Which parasite can cause diarrhoea, weight loss, and reduced growth in agamids?

Coccidia

Which parasite is common in tortoise faeces and is usually not pathogenic?

Cryptosporidium

Which ectoparasite can lead to anaemia and be a vector of disease in reptiles?

Ophionyssus natricus

Which method is used to diagnose renal dysfunction in reptiles?

Analyzing urine and blood samples

Which treatment is used to prevent and treat nutritional deficiencies in reptiles?

Vitamin and mineral supplements

Which treatment is used to treat muscle injuries and joint disorders in reptiles?

Hydrotherapy

Which practice can help prevent the spread of disease in reptiles?

Avoiding contact with reptiles if sick

Study Notes

  • Debilitated animals are more susceptible to parasitic overgrowth, including Pinworms, Oxyurids, Coccidia, Ascarids, Protozoa, and Cryptosporidium.
  • Both a fresh smear and flotation technique should be used for accurate parasite identification.
  • Pinworms (Enterobius spp.) are common in many reptile species, rarely significant in low numbers, and can be treated with fenbendazole (20mg/kg/d for five doses).
  • Oxyurids are also common in most reptile species, and can lead to impaction, ill thrift, and death.
  • Coccidia, such as Isospora amphiboluri, can cause diarrhoea, weight loss, and reduced growth in agamids.
  • Protozoa, including Cryptosporidium, are common in tortoise faeces and are usually not pathogenic.
  • Salmonella is frequently carried by captive reptiles, but not by wild ones, and treatment is not recommended due to potential antibiotic resistance.
  • Ectoparasites, such as Ophionyssus natricus, can lead to anaemia and be a vector of disease. Treatment includes fipronil (Frontline) at 2ml/kg and ivermectin, but with caution due to toxicity and potential for adverse reactions.
  • Blood sampling methods vary between species, including tortoises (jugular vein, subcarapacial sinus, or dorsal tail vein), lizards (ventral tail vein), and snakes (ventral tail vein, palatine vessel, or jugular vein).
  • Biochemistry tests, including serum or heparinised plasma, are used to diagnose conditions such as hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, calcium imbalances, and hepatomegaly.
  • Hepatic dysfunction is common in reptiles, and can be characterized by non-specific symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, and low albumin and uric acid levels.
  • Renal dysfunction can be diagnosed by analyzing urine and blood samples, and can be characterized by elevated urinary GGT, NAG, and AST, as well as elevated urea and creatinine levels.
  • Hepatic and renal dysfunction can be caused by various factors, including diet, infection, concurrent disease, and poor husbandry.
  • Calcium imbalances can be caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, which can be diagnosed by measuring the levels of 1,25-Cholecalciferol and PTH.
  • Intravenous fluids and electrolyte supplements can be used to treat dehydration, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic disorders.
  • Prednisolone and other corticosteroids are used to treat immune-mediated disorders and certain infectious diseases.
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements, such as vitamin A and D3, are used to prevent and treat nutritional deficiencies.
  • Antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, and metronidazole, are used to treat bacterial infections.
  • Antiparasitic drugs, such as fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and ivermectin, are used to treat parasitic infestations.
  • Antifungal drugs, such as itraconazole and miconazole, are used to treat fungal infections.
  • Heparin, vitamin K, and other coagulation factors are used to treat hemorrhagic disorders.
  • Hydrotherapy, such as warm baths and massages, can be used to treat muscle injuries and joint disorders.
  • Surgery, such as amputations, spinal repairs, and the removal of tumors, can be used to treat various conditions, such as fractures, spinal injuries, and malignancies.
  • Other treatments, such as hyperthermia, phototherapy, and the use of herbs and supplements, can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including infections, inflammation, and metabolic disorders.
  • Good hygiene practices, such as cleaning cages regularly and avoiding contact with reptiles if sick, can help prevent the spread of disease.
  • In advanced cases, euthanasia is a humane option to prevent suffering.
  • Advanced research is being conducted on the use of stem cells and other emerging technologies to treat various conditions in reptiles.

Test your knowledge of Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, a metabolic bone disease that affects all reptiles. Learn about the factors that affect calcium metabolism, the importance of calcium homeostasis, and the consequences of reduced calcium availability.

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