Development Psych Chapter 1-12
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Development Psych Chapter 1-12

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Questions and Answers

According to the text, which perspective emphasizes the idea that children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations?

Psychoanalytic perspective

Which term focuses on the process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with?

Continuity

Which perspective emphasizes the idea of lifelong patterns established by early experiences and gaining clarity of thought as time goes on?

Plasticity versus stability perspective

Which term involves is hereditary information received from parents?

<p>Nature</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which period is the spinal cord formed?

<p>Embryonic period</p> Signup and view all the answers

When are the upper limbs very sensitive to teratogens?

<p>Week 4 to week 6</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of preeclampsia if left untreated?

<p>Convulsions in the mother and fetal death</p> Signup and view all the answers

When does habituation occur?

<p>When the organism responds to a stimulus and the response slowly diminishes over time</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what week do creases start to form during hand development?

<p>From 10 to 13 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

When does the dilation stage occur during childbirth?

<p>First stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

When does the fetal period begin?

<p>Week 30</p> Signup and view all the answers

When are the eyes very sensitive to teratogens?

<p>Week 4 to week 8</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which sense is the least developed in newborns?

<p>Vision</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can lead to anoxia and cerebral palsy in newborns?

<p>Oxygen deprivation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which reflexes have survival value and gradually disappear within the first 6 months?

<p>Rooting reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What influences babies' taste preferences?

<p>Amniotic fluid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can help identify CNS abnormalities and developmental issues in newborns?

<p>Observation of sleep states</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which state of arousal is experienced by newborns when they are relatively inactive, eyes open and attentive, and have even breathing?

<p>Quiet alertness</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which reflex is elicited by stroking the cheek of a newborn?

<p>Rooting reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential risk factor for an increased chance of cerebral palsy in newborns?

<p>Breech position</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which genetic inheritance pattern causes phenotype to be a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes, influencing the expression of certain traits?

<p>Incomplete dominance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prenatal diagnostic method involves the sampling of amniotic fluid to detect developmental problems before birth?

<p>Amniocentesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which level of the surrounding environment, according to the ecological systems theory, includes influences from extended family, mass media, and other social structures?

<p>Exosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which perspective focuses on directly observable events and behaviors, with an emphasis on the impact of environmental stimuli on behavior?

<p>Behaviorism</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prenatal development process involves the fusion of a sperm and an egg to form a zygote?

<p>Fertilization</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theorist stresses the importance of social interaction and adult assistance in children's cognitive development and the acquisition of cultural behaviors?

<p>Vygotsky</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, is characterized by the ability to think symbolically, but with limitations in logical reasoning?

<p>Preoperational stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prenatal diagnostic method involves the sampling of placental tissue to detect genetic and chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus?

<p>Chorionic villus sampling</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which genetic inheritance pattern involves the interaction of multiple genes to produce a particular trait?

<p>Polygenic inheritance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prenatal diagnostic method uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus?

<p>Ultrasound</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which level of the surrounding environment, according to the ecological systems theory, involves interactions within the immediate surroundings such as family, peers, and school?

<p>Microsystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage greater is the height of a 2-year-old compared to birth height?

<p>75%</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the weight of an infant triple compared to the end of year 2?

<p>18 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which period do the head, chest, and trunk grow first, followed by arms and legs, then hands and feet?

<p>Prenatal period</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of myelination in brain development?

<p>Increases brain size</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the cells that coat neural fibers with an insulated fatty sheath?

<p>Glial cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to neurons that are not stimulated by input from the environment?

<p>They die</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the fibers from different neurons coming close together but not touching?

<p>Synapses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What measure of brain functioning records the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to a particular stimulus?

<p>Event related potentials</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do babies typically shift to categorizing based on common function or behavior?

<p>6 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants typically exhibit the first signs of stranger anxiety?

<p>4 to 6 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do self-conscious emotions such as guilt, shame, and embarrassment typically appear?

<p>18 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the stability of temperament start to increase significantly?

<p>3 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Bowlby's attachment theory, at what phase do babies display separation anxiety?

<p>Clear cut</p> Signup and view all the answers

In Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation, which attachment style is characterized by infants being unresponsive to the parent when she is present and not distressed when the parent leaves?

<p>Insecure-avoidant attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of attachment is most strongly associated with higher self-esteem, social skills, and empathy in later development?

<p>Secure attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what percentage do children typically exhibit secure attachment?

<p>60%</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of Bowlby's attachment theory involves the development of an internal working model?

<p>Formation of a reciprocal relationship</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of Bowlby's attachment theory involves built-in signals that help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans who comfort them?

<p>Preattachment phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants typically exhibit the first signs of cooing (vowel-like noises)?

<p>2 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants typically start babbling with consonants added, repeating consonant-vowel combinations?

<p>6 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do 18 to 24 month olds arrive at solutions suddenly rather than through trial and error?

<p>18 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present?

<p>Deferred imitation</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants imitate actions that are intended but not complete?

<p>14-18 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What method is used to discover what infants know about hidden objects and other aspects of physical reality?

<p>Violation of expectation method</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants demonstrate evidence of object permanence using the violation of expectation method?

<p>2.5-3.5 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants more often engage in predictive tracking of objects?

<p>5-9 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do 8 to 10 month olds remove cover from partially hidden objects before they are able to do so from a fully covered object?

<p>8-10 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the error made by 8 to 12 month olds when they search for hidden objects?

<p>A not B search error</p> Signup and view all the answers

What perspective suggests that infants have some built-in cognitive equipment for making sense of experience?

<p>Core knowledge perspective</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants demonstrate evidence of object permanence by tracking a ball’s path of movement as it disappears and reappears behind a barrier?

<p>4-5 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the perspective that emphasizes the idea of lifelong patterns established by early experiences and gaining clarity of thought as time goes on?

<p>Core knowledge perspective</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants search for an object placed on a table and covered by a cloth before they search for an object that a hand deposits under a cloth?

<p>10 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method is NOT used to study brain activity and specialization in the cerebral cortex?

<p>X-ray</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of malnutrition can lead to lasting physical and cognitive damage in children?

<p>Marasmus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory of cognitive development involves the sensorimotor stage divided into six subsections?

<p>Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do infants build cognitive schemes through?

<p>Direct interaction with the environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the reflex elicited by stroking the cheek of a newborn?

<p>Rooting reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development is characterized by the ability to think symbolically?

<p>Preoperational stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with called?

<p>Assimilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which prenatal diagnostic method involves the sampling of amniotic fluid to detect developmental problems before birth?

<p>Amniocentesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which reflexes have survival value and gradually disappear within the first 6 months?

<p>Babinski reflex and Moro reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of preeclampsia if left untreated?

<p>Increased risk of cerebral palsy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theorist emphasizes the nature as hereditary information received from parents and everything else as nurture?

<p>John B. Watson</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the level of the surrounding environment in the ecological systems theory that involves interactions within the immediate surroundings such as family, peers, and school?

<p>Microsystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children start to draw recognizable shapes and label them?

<p>Around age 3</p> Signup and view all the answers

What age do children typically start to distinguish writing from non-writing?

<p>Around age 4</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do most children use the adult grip pattern for writing?

<p>Age 5</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically exhibit the first signs of cooing?

<p>Around 2 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which age range do children typically learn to grip a pencil?

<p>Between 3-5 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically confuse letter pairs that are alike in shape?

<p>Around age 4</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically start to create more complex drawings and conventional human and animal figures?

<p>Five and 6 years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

What age do children typically start to experiment with lines and shapes to print letters and words?

<p>Age 4</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do many parts of the cerebral cortex have overproduced synapses?

<p>4-5 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the number of synapses in the prefrontal cortex nearly double the adult amount?

<p>3 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the hippocampus undergo rapid synapse formation and myelination?

<p>6-12 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the corpus callosum experience peak synaptic production and myelination?

<p>3-4 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do most fetuses show a right hand preference during thumb sucking?

<p>12-14 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do self-conscious emotions such as guilt, shame, and embarrassment typically appear?

<p>18-24 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants typically exhibit the first signs of cooing (vowel-like noises)?

<p>2-3 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants demonstrate evidence of object permanence using the violation of expectation method?

<p>8-9 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants imitate actions that are intended but not complete?

<p>12-14 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do 8 to 10 month olds remove cover from partially hidden objects before they are able to do so from a fully covered object?

<p>10 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants more often engage in predictive tracking of objects?

<p>10-11 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the brain increase from 70% of adult weight to 90% by preschool years?

<p>4 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to body growth and cognitive performance in early childhood?

<p>Sleep</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a factor influencing handedness in early childhood?

<p>Social environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is associated with variations in sleeping arrangements in early childhood?

<p>Benefits of lower SIDS rates</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has led to a decline in children's lead levels?

<p>Laws limiting lead content in paint and gasoline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does brain plasticity ensure in early childhood?

<p>Acquisition of certain abilities despite brain damage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influenced by repeated exposure to new foods in early childhood?

<p>Nutrition</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is associated with low-level lead exposure in early childhood?

<p>Negatively related to IQ</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influenced by nature, nurture, and prenatal events in determining handedness?

<p>Practice</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is associated with extreme emotional deprivation in early childhood?

<p>Psychosocial dwarfism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributes to a decline in childhood diseases?

<p>Widespread immunization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influenced by social environment in early childhood?

<p>Cosleeping arrangements</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influenced by lack of health insurance in low-income families?

<p>Widespread immunization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the impact of emotional well-being on growth and health in preschoolers?

<p>It leads to more illnesses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended total sleep duration for 2-3 year olds?

<p>10-11 hours</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group of children is more likely to continue napping throughout early childhood?

<p>Hispanic American children</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of inadequate parental control over screen time?

<p>Linked to sleep problems and later bedtimes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the potential outcome of coercing picky eaters to eat healthy food?

<p>Less acceptance and more treat consumption</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do ordinary childhood illnesses affect physical growth in well-nourished children?

<p>They have no effect on physical growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended sleep intervention for children?

<p>Parent education about individual differences in children's sleep requirements</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of extreme emotional deprivation on growth?

<p>Stunted growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in children's development?

<p>Prompts the release of thyroxine crucial for brain development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended sleep duration for 4-6 year olds?

<p>10-11 hours</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the impact of sleep habits on cognitive performance?

<p>Significantly impacts cognitive performance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of early treatment with injections of GH or IGF-1 for children's growth?

<p>Leads to faster growth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a strong predictor of emergent literacy?

<p>Phonological awareness</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is associated with early reading ability and the ability to comprehend story narratives?

<p>Language and verbal reasoning</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which brain region plays a role in theory of mind development?

<p>Left prefrontal cortex</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is advanced in understanding false belief and other aspects of the mind?

<p>Make-believe play</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses, think flexibly, and plan?

<p>Executive function</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is children's active effort to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences?

<p>Early literacy</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically begin to understand the symbolic function of written language?

<p>3 years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor associated with children's comprehension of story narratives?

<p>Social interaction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the sequence for mastery of gender constancy according to cognitive developmental theory?

<p>Gender labeling, gender stability, gender consistency</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which child rearing style is characterized by being warm, responsive, and engaging in confrontive behavioral control with reasonable demands for mature behavior?

<p>Authoritative</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to gender schema theory, how do young children pick up gender-stereotyped preferences?

<p>From others while organizing experiences into schemas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of child maltreatment prevention through teaching high-risk parents effective child rearing strategies?

<p>Reduces the likelihood of child maltreatment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which child rearing style is characterized by being cold and rejecting, engaging in coercive behavioral control, and making excessive demands for mature behavior?

<p>Authoritarian</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of gender schema theory in explaining gender role development?

<p>Combining social learning and cognitive developmental features</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of Bowlby's attachment theory involves the development of an internal working model?

<p>Clear-cut attachment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of authoritative child rearing style?

<p>Encouraging mature behavior with warmth and responsiveness</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Piaget, what is the most flexible means of mental representation in early childhood?

<p>Language</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically understand that an object can take on a fictional identity in a pretend game?

<p>3 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Vygotsky, what do children learn to follow as they create imaginary situations in make believe play?

<p>Internal ideas and social rules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does sociodramatic play contribute to in preschoolers?

<p>Cognitive and social skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age are children typically able to use models as guides to finding things?

<p>3 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Piaget, what leads to internal images of experience which children then label with words?

<p>Sensory experiences</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically become detached participants in make believe play?

<p>3 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Vygotsky consider make believe play to be in terms of cognitive development?

<p>A zone of proximal development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Piaget not regard as the primary ingredient in childhood cognitive change?

<p>Language</p> Signup and view all the answers

By the end of the second year, what type of play is under way and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood?

<p>Sociodramatic play</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does play contribute to in children's development?

<p>Cognitive and social skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Piaget believe play detaches from in early childhood?

<p>Real life conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Piaget, what is dual representation?

<p>Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and symbol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities?

<p>Animistic thinking</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction?

<p>Irreversibility</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Piaget's class inclusion problem demonstrate?

<p>Lack of hierarchical classification</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is centration in the context of Piaget's theory?

<p>Children's focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is egocentrism according to Piaget?

<p>Failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one’s own</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when outward appearance changes?

<p>Conservation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the organization of objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences?

<p>Hierarchical classification</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the inability to select a picture that shows a situation from another's perspective?

<p>Egocentric bias</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the failure to realize that changes in width compensate for changes in height?

<p>Centration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is magical thinking common during preschool years due to?

<p>Egocentrically assigning human purposes to physical events</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Piaget's three mountains problem demonstrate about preschoolers?

<p>Egocentric response</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children master the meaning of numbers up to 10?

<p>4 years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

What allows children to rapidly connect new words with their underlying concepts?

<p>Fast mapping</p> Signup and view all the answers

What largely consists of observable characteristics in preschoolers' self-concept?

<p>Physical traits</p> Signup and view all the answers

What influences prosocial behavior in preschoolers?

<p>Empathic concern</p> Signup and view all the answers

What stage does social development in preschoolers progress through?

<p>Cooperative play</p> Signup and view all the answers

What influences early childhood friendships?

<p>Parental involvement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is evident in young children and influenced by social learning theories of gender identity?

<p>Gender typing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What comes before self-perceptions in the development of gender identity, according to social learning theories?

<p>Behavior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What allows children to solve simple problems using counting?

<p>Fast mapping</p> Signup and view all the answers

What largely influences the self-concept of preschoolers?

<p>Adult expectations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is influential in the development of gender identity in young children?

<p>Parental influence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the stage of social development in preschoolers characterized by experiencing self-conscious emotions?

<p>Parallel play</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Piaget, which type of thinking is common in young children?

<p>Egocentric thinking</p> Signup and view all the answers

In Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, what role does private speech play in cognitive processes?

<p>It assists in cognitive processes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the teaching technique that adjusts support to fit the child's current level of performance?

<p>Dynamic assessment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which concept refers to the promotion of cognitive development through social interaction?

<p>Intersubjectivity</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do preschoolers' magical beliefs decline according to the text?

<p>4-8 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Vygotsky's sociocultural theory stress about cognitive development?

<p>Social context of cognitive development</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which technique involves adjusting support to fit the child's current level of performance?

<p>Scaffolding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is common in young children according to Piaget's view?

<p>Egocentric thinking</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Vygotsky's theory, what is the term for the range of tasks a child can perform with the help of an adult or more capable peer?

<p>Zone of proximal development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of adjusting support to fit the child's current level of performance?

<p>Scaffolding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Vygotsky's sociocultural theory emphasize about cognitive development?

<p>Social context</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is common in preschoolers' reasoning?

<p>Effective reasoning in simplified tasks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common vision problem in middle childhood?

<p>Myopia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of US children are overweight, leading to health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes?

<p>32%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most effective treatment for obesity in middle childhood?

<p>Behavioral interventions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most likely contributor to nocturnal enuresis in children?

<p>Heredity</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which region are the tallest children found according to worldwide variations?

<p>Northern and Central Europe</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most significant change in brain development during middle childhood?

<p>Increase in synaptic pruning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of hearing loss in 3-4% of school-aged children?

<p>Genetics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor contributing to refined gross motor skills in middle childhood?

<p>Biological maturation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor contributing to the accumulation of fat in girls by age 9?

<p>Hormonal changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor contributing to the increase in obesity rates in the last several decades?

<p>Sedentary lifestyle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most effective intervention for treating nocturnal enuresis in children?

<p>Behavioral therapy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of skeletal growing pains in middle childhood?

<p>HGH release at night</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age does the understanding of the transitive property of equality typically emerge in children's cognitive development?

<p>7 years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to DSM-5?

<p>Difficulties in social communication and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a recognized cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

<p>Genetic components and advanced parental age</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the prevalence of autism among children?

<p>1 in 88 children</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cognitive theory is associated with autism?

<p>Theory of mind hypothesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are recognized safe and effective approaches for fostering skills in individuals with ASD?

<p>Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) and TEACCH</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what prevalence rate is autism found in males compared to females?

<p>2 times higher</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of spatial reasoning in children by the end of middle childhood?

<p>Cognitive maps and accurate overall views of large-scale places</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of children's cognitive development related to classification hierarchies?

<p>Ability to focus on relations between general and specific categories at the same time</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key ability developed by children in cognitive development related to seriation?

<p>Ordering items along quantitative dimensions like length or weight</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a recognized subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder according to history?

<p>Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of savant skills in individuals with autism?

<p>More frequent in males with autism</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what gestational age do 90% of infants survive with 10% experiencing moderate to severe disability?

<p>26 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of infants discharged alive at 24 weeks experience moderate to severe disability?

<p>40%</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what gestational age do the majority of infants discharged alive experience moderate to severe disability?

<p>23 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Newborn Development and Survival

  • Apgar scale assesses a baby's physical condition at birth, rating heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and color.
  • Birth complications, such as oxygen deprivation, can lead to anoxia and cerebral palsy, with breech position and head injuries increasing risks.
  • Preterm and low birth weight infants face challenges like delayed cognitive development and higher mortality rates, especially among African American babies.
  • Newborn reflexes, including rooting, eye blink, and sucking, have survival value and gradually disappear within the first 6 months.
  • Pregnancy length significantly impacts survival rates, with premature infants facing higher risks of moderate to severe disability.
  • Newborns experience five states of arousal, including NREM sleep, REM sleep, drowsiness, quiet alertness, and waking and crying.
  • Sensory capacities, like touch and taste, are well developed at birth, with infants using touch to investigate their world and showing preferences for basic tastes.
  • Amniotic fluid, rich in taste and smells, influences babies' taste preferences, with exposure during pregnancy or through breast milk impacting their preferences.
  • Newborns can react to various smells, with pleasant and unpleasant odors playing a role in helping babies identify others and ensuring survival.
  • Newborns can hear a wide variety of sounds, prefer complex sounds, and demonstrate the ability to make distinctions among speech sounds.
  • Vision is the least developed sense in newborns, with limited visual acuity and the ability to track moving objects.
  • Observation of sleep states and sensory reactions can help identify CNS abnormalities and developmental issues in newborns.

Theories of Child Development and Prenatal Development

  • Freud's psychosexual theory emphasizes the crucial role of early parental management in shaping a child's personality.
  • Erikson's psychosocial theory builds upon Freud's work, highlighting the ego's positive contribution to development and its role in making individuals active members of society.
  • Piaget's constructivist theory focuses on how children adapt and build mental structures through interaction with the environment, involving assimilation and accommodation.
  • Piaget's stages of cognitive development include the sensorimotor stage (birth to two years) and the preoperational stage (2-7 years), each characterized by distinct cognitive abilities and advancements.
  • Vygotsky's sociocultural theory stresses the importance of social interaction and adult assistance in children's cognitive development and the acquisition of cultural behaviors.
  • The ecological systems theory views child development as influenced by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, including the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.
  • Behaviorism focuses on directly observable events and behaviors, with classical conditioning experiments such as Little Albert's fear of rats demonstrating the impact of environmental stimuli on behavior.
  • Prenatal development involves the processes of meiosis, gamete formation, fertilization, and the transmission of genetic information through chromosomes and genes.
  • Different patterns of genetic inheritance, such as dominant-recessive, incomplete dominance, and X-linked inheritance, can influence the expression of certain traits.
  • Prenatal diagnostic methods, including amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and ultrasound, allow for the detection of developmental problems before birth.
  • Socioeconomic status (SES) has significant effects on parental and child functioning, influencing family dynamics, parenting styles, and access to resources.
  • Canalization, epigenetics, and heredity play important roles in shaping development by influencing gene expression, adaptive responses to the environment, and the passing of genetic characteristics across generations.

Early Brain Development and Motor Skills

  • Various methods such as EEG, fMRI, PET, and near infrared spectroscopy are used to study brain activity and specialization in the cerebral cortex
  • The cerebral cortex is responsible for thought, consciousness, and emotion regulation, with two hemispheres that specialize in sequential and integrative information processing
  • The brain is highly plastic, allowing for learning and adaptation, but damage to specific regions can lead to permanent loss of function
  • Sensitive periods in brain development include experience-expectant and experience-dependent periods, with breastfeeding providing optimal nutrition for brain development
  • Malnutrition, such as marasmus and kwashiorkor, can lead to lasting physical and cognitive damage in children
  • Infants have the ability to imitate, aided by mirror neurons, and develop reaching and grasping skills in stages
  • Motor development in infants is influenced by central nervous system development, body movement capacities, child goals, and environmental support
  • Infants develop depth perception and actively search for stable features in their environment through differentiation theory
  • The sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development is divided into six subsections, each characterized by distinct behaviors and abilities
  • Adaptation in cognitive development involves assimilation, accommodation, and organization of new schemes
  • Infants build cognitive schemes through direct interaction with the environment, repeating behaviors and actions
  • The visual cliff experiment demonstrates how infants develop depth perception and anticipate events through their actions

Child Development and Health

  • Early treatment with injections of GH or IGF-1 can help children catch up in growth and then grow at a normal rate
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) prompts the release of thyroxine, crucial for brain development and the impact of GH on body size
  • Infants born with insufficient thyroxine must receive immediate treatment to avoid intellectual disability
  • Emotional well-being can affect growth and health, with stressful home lives leading to more illnesses in preschoolers
  • Extreme emotional deprivation can lead to psychosocial dwarfism, a growth disorder appearing between ages 2 and 15
  • Sleep habits and problems can significantly impact cognitive performance and overall health, especially for low SES children
  • Total sleep declines in early childhood, with 2-3 year olds sleeping 11-12 hours, and 4-6 year olds sleeping 10-11 hours
  • Napping remains common among African American, Asian, and Hispanic children throughout early childhood
  • Inadequate parental control over screen time is linked to sleep problems and later bedtimes
  • Sleep interventions should include parent education about individual differences in children's sleep requirements
  • Many children become picky eaters, but coercing them to eat healthy food may lead to less acceptance and more treat consumption
  • In well-nourished children, ordinary childhood illnesses have no effect on physical growth, but in undernourished children, disease can interact with malnutrition with severe consequences

Preschoolers' Cognitive Development: Piaget vs Vygotsky

  • Piaget's view of preschoolers challenged by follow-up research
  • Preschoolers demonstrate effective reasoning in simplified tasks with familiar objects
  • Egocentric, animistic, and magical thinking common in young children
  • Preschoolers adapt speech to fit the needs of listeners
  • Preschoolers' magical beliefs decline between ages 4 and 8
  • Vygotsky's sociocultural theory stresses the social context of cognitive development
  • Egocentric speech, private speech, and inner speech in Vygotsky's theory
  • Zone of proximal development and private speech's role in cognitive processes
  • Intersubjectivity and its role in promoting cognitive development through social interaction
  • Scaffolding as a teaching technique to adjust support to fit the child's current level of performance
  • Guided participation, assisted discovery, and peer collaboration in cognitive development
  • Theory of mind development in children, including understanding of false beliefs and desires

Children's Cognitive Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Children become more aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between general and specific categories at the same time
  • They develop the ability of seriation, ordering items along quantitative dimensions like length or weight
  • Transitive inference, understanding the transitive property of equality, emerges around 7 years, linked to reaching other concrete operational milestones
  • Spatial reasoning in children involves understanding of space, cognitive maps, and accurate overall views of large-scale places by the end of middle childhood
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder characterized by language difficulties, social communication issues, and repetitive behaviors
  • ASD has a history of distinct subtypes including autism, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD-NOS, and Asperger syndrome, but is now classified under DSM-5 as Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Characteristics of ASD include difficulties in social communication, restricted repetitive patterns of behavior, sensory issues, and differences in thinking and learning
  • Causes of ASD include genetic components, de novo mutations, copy number variants, single nucleotide variants, advanced parental age, and prenatal environmental factors
  • Autism prevalence is 1 in 88 children, with an increase in diagnoses and a higher prevalence in males
  • Savant skills, exceptional abilities, are more frequent in males with autism and less prevalent in other disorders
  • Cognitive theories of autism include the theory of mind hypothesis, executive dysfunction hypothesis, and weak central coherence
  • Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) and TEACCH are recognized as safe and effective approaches for fostering a variety of skills in individuals with ASD, focusing on learning principles and educational strategies

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Explore the critical aspects of child development, including newborn reflexes, prenatal development theories, brain development, motor skills, and cognitive development in preschoolers. Learn about the Apgar scale, sensory capacities, brain plasticity, prenatal diagnostic methods, and theories of child development. Understand the impact of emotional well-being, sleep habits, and cognitive performance on children's health.

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