Neuroplasticity: Adaptive Changes in the Brain

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10 Questions

What is neuroplasticity primarily defined as?

The ability of the nervous system to change in response to stimuli

What is a key aspect of neuroplasticity related to injuries like stroke or traumatic brain injury?

Reorganizing its structure and connections

What is the definition of neuroplasticity?

The ability of the nervous system to change its activity in response to stimuli by reorganizing its structure, functions, or connections

What is a common objective related to patients with stroke and neuroplasticity?

Summarize treatment considerations

Which mechanism of neuroplasticity involves concepts like synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis?

Neuronal regeneration

Which factor is NOT associated with poor synaptic plasticity?

Lack of communication among the healthcare team

Who first mentioned the term neural plasticity?

Jerzy Konorski

How does collaboration among the interprofessional team enhance care delivery for stroke patients in relation to neuroplasticity?

By improving care coordination and treatment outcomes

What is the focus of the concept of synaptic plasticity?

Creating experience-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength

During which phase following brain injury does recruitment of support cells occur?

The following weeks

Study Notes

Neuroplasticity

  • Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity, is a process that involves adaptive structural and functional changes to the brain.
  • It is defined as the ability of the nervous system to change its activity in response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, functions, or connections after injuries, such as a stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI).

History of Neuroplasticity

  • The term "plasticity" in regards to the nervous system was first mentioned by William James in 1890.
  • The term "neural plasticity" is credited to Jerzy Konorski in 1948 and was popularized by Donald Hebb in 1949.

Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity

Neuronal Regeneration/Collateral Sprouting

  • Synaptic plasticity: the ability to make experience-dependent long-lasting changes in the strength of neuronal connections.
  • Long-term potentiation (LTP): a form of synaptic plasticity discovered in 1973 by Bliss and Lomo.
  • LTP is the long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic transmission between neurons after repetitive stimulation.

Phases of Neuroplasticity after Injury

  • First 48 hours: initial damage and cell death, with the loss of certain cortical pathways associated with the lost neurons.
  • The following weeks: recruitment of support cells and shifting of cortical pathways from inhibitory to excitatory.
  • Weeks to months afterward: the brain continues to remodel itself via axonal sprouting and further reorganization around the damage.

Clinical Relevance of Neuroplasticity

  • Neuroplasticity is important for restoration of function after injury, such as stroke or TBI.
  • It can have beneficial (restoration of function), neutral (no change), or negative (pathological consequences) effects.
  • The interprofessional team plays a crucial role in enhancing care for patients with stroke by collaborating and communicating effectively.

Explore the concept of Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity, which involves adaptive structural and functional changes to the brain in response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. Learn about the brain's ability to reorganize its structure, functions, or connections after injuries.

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