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Microbiology Parasitology: Systemic Nematodes Overview

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71 Questions

Which term describes a resting stage similar to a spore with a thick wall and low level of metabolism in parasite life cycles?


What is the infective stage introduced into a host by some parasitic sporozoans?


Which term is used for parasites that infect a single species and have direct life cycles?

Direct pathogens

Which parasitic infection is known to cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans?

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

How is Angiostrongylus cantonensis primarily transmitted to humans?


Which term refers to the migration of larvae of parasites to the eye, causing inflammation and damage?

Ocular larva migrans

What is the major causative agent of lymphatic filariasis?

Wuchereria bancrofti

Which parasite is transmitted by the black fly and can cause visual impairment and blindness?

Onchocerca volvulus

Which parasite causes visceral larva migrans and can infect various organs including the liver, heart, and CNS?

Toxocara sp.

What is a potential consequence of ocular larva migrans infection?

Visual impairment

Which parasite can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans?

Toxocara sp.

Which parasite can cause parasitic encephalitis when humans are infected?

Onchocerca volvulus

Which parasite causes space-occupying lesions in several organs including the liver and brain?

Taenia solium

Which parasite is one of the largest trematodes to infect man and causes inflammation, ulceration, and hemorrhage in the small intestine?

Fasciola hepatica

Which parasite is primarily a parasite of sheep but can cause severe anemia in humans?

Fasciola hepatica

What parasite is acquired through ingestion of infective immature forms in raw or pickled fish and causes liver infection?

Clonorchis sinensis

Which parasite is associated with hydatid cysts and can cause severe complications in the liver?

Echinococcus granulosus

Which parasite is responsible for causing clonorchiasis, an infection of the liver?

Clonorchis sinensis

What is the common name for Angiostrongylus cantonensis?

Rat lungworm

What is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin?

Ingestion of snails and slugs

What can result in the accidental ingestion of snails and slugs that act as intermediate hosts for parasites like Angiostrongylus cantonensis?

Contaminated fruits and vegetables

Which of the following can cause parasitic encephalitis from worms in the human CNS?

Antigens released by dead and living parasites

What does the term 'visceral larva migrans (VLM)' refer to?

Parasites moving through organs and tissues

What is a common route of acquiring Taenia solium infection?

Consuming uncooked pork

Which parasite is chiefly tropical and prefers the large intestine?


Which parasite is primarily acquired transdermally?

Ancylostoma and Necanter

Which parasite is prevalent in cold and temperate climates but rare in the tropics?


What condition does Ascaris cause?


How is Enterobius primarily transmitted?

Fecal-oral transmission

Which parasite can cause diarrhea, rectal prolapse, and anemia in heavily-infected individuals?

Ancylostoma (hookworm)

How is Balantidium coli usually acquired by humans?

Via the fecal-oral route from pigs

Which protozoan parasite is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans?

Balantidium coli

What is the main mode of transmission of malaria to humans?

Mosquito bites

What defines the complex life cycle of malaria involving the sporozoite, hypozoites, and merozoites?

Injection of sporozoites by a mosquito vector

Which intestine-infecting protozoan is known for causing a diarrheal syndrome that can lead to colonic ulceration?

Balantidium coli

What is the most common mode of transmission for Toxoplasma gondii?

Through ingestion of oocysts from cat feces

Which type of Leishmania sp. infection produces widespread skin lesions resembling leprosy?

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

How is Balantidium coli primarily transmitted to humans?

Through ingestion of contaminated water or food

Which protozoan parasite can cause severe diarrhea and is commonly acquired through contaminated water sources?


Which parasite is responsible for causing malaria in humans?

Plasmodium vivax

Which protozoan parasite forms trophozoites and can cause intestinal infections in humans?

Balantidium coli

What parasite is known for causing severe diarrhea in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals?


Which parasite can cause dysentery-like symptoms and is commonly transmitted through contaminated water or food?

Balantidium coli

Which protozoan parasite is responsible for causing the most severe form of malaria in humans?

Plasmodium falciparum

Which intestinal parasite is associated with causing bloody diarrhea and can infect pigs as well as humans?

Balantidium coli

Which protozoan parasite is responsible for causing a diarrheal illness known as balantidiasis?

Balantidium coli

How is cryptosporidiosis usually transmitted to humans?

By consuming contaminated water or food

What is a characteristic symptom of Balantidium coli infection in humans?

Rectal prolapse

How does malaria primarily spread among humans?

From mosquito bites

Which of the following best describes the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans?

Contact with infected cat feces

What is a common symptom associated with intestinal parasites like Toxocara sp. in humans?

Visceral larva migrans

In what way can ingestion of infective immature forms of intestinal parasites like Toxocara sp. from dog or cat feces affect humans?

Resulting in inflammation and damage to various organs

What is the primary mode of transmission for Cryptosporidium sp.?

Ingestion of contaminated water or food

Which protozoan parasite forms cysts and causes a diarrheal syndrome that can lead to colonic ulceration?

Giardia lamblia

How is Balantidium coli primarily acquired by humans?

Ingestion of undercooked pork

Which genus of protozoa includes Plasmodium sp., the parasite responsible for causing malaria in humans?


Which intestinal parasite has a complex life cycle involving sporozoites, hypnozoites, and merozoites?

Plasmodium sp.

What is the main route of transmission for malaria to humans?

Bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes

Which parasite can cause blindness?

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Which fungal organism causes Rose handler’s disease?

Cryptococcus neoformans

What disease is caused by Plasmodium vivax?


Which arthropod vector transmits Trypanosoma brucei?

Tse Tse fly

What organ is infected by Paragonimus westermani?


Which protozoal organism causes sleeping sickness in humans?

Trypanosoma brucei

What's the disease caused by Candida?


What disease is caused by Angiostrongylus, a parasite that can be acquired from snail slime?


Which fungal organism causes Rose handler’s disease?

Trichophyton sp.

Which protozoal organism causes Chagas disease?

Naegleria fowleri

What is the arthropod vector for Leishmania sp.?

Tse Tse

Which organ is infected by Schistosoma haematobium?


What disease is caused by Pneumocystis carinii?


Study Notes


  • Onchocerca volvulus causes visual impairment, blindness, and severe itching of the skin, and is the second most common cause of infectious blindness after trachoma.
  • Toxocara sp. causes Toxocariasis, a worldwide infection of dogs and cats, which can cause visceral larva migrans (VLM) in humans, leading to inflammation and damage in various organs.
  • Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis and is commonly found in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin.


  • Pneumocystis carinii causes Pneumonia.
  • Cryptococcus neoformans causes Meningitis.
  • Sporothrix schenckii causes Rose handler’s disease.
  • Trichophyton sp. causes Tinea.
  • Candida sp. causes candidiasis/thrush.


  • Plasmodium vivax causes Malaria.
  • Entamoeba histolytica causes Dysentary.
  • Naegleria fowleri causes Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).
  • Trypanosoma brucei causes Sleeping sickness.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease.

Arthropod Vectors

  • Onchocerca volvulus is transmitted by the black fly.
  • Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by the mosquito.
  • Leishmania sp. is transmitted by the Sand fly.
  • Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted by the Tse Tse fly.
  • Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by the Mosquito.

Organs Infected

  • Schistosoma haematobium infects the Bladder.
  • Paragonimus westermani infects the Lung.
  • Fasciola hepatica infects the Liver.
  • Clonorchis sinensis infects the Liver.
  • Fasciolopsis buski infects the Intestine.

Explore important systemic nematodes in microbiology parasitology, including Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi. Understand their transmission methods and associated diseases.

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