DNA Synthesis

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56 Questions

Which direction does the leading strand grow in DNA replication?

5' to 3'

What is the direction of growth of the lagging strand in DNA replication?

3' to 5'

How are Okazaki fragments joined together in DNA replication?

By DNA ligase

Which model describes the synthesis of the lagging strand in DNA replication?

Trombone model

What is the role of DNA polymerase I in DNA replication?

It removes the RNA primer

Which DNA repair mechanism is responsible for removing larger mutations that distort DNA structure?

Nucleotide excision repair

What is the function of the Telomerase enzyme in DNA replication?

It maintains telomeric length

Which enzyme is responsible for unwinding the double helix during DNA replication?

DNA helicase

Which type of DNA repair process is used to correct DNA mutations caused by exposure to UV radiation?

Nucleotide excision repair

During DNA replication, in which direction is the leading strand synthesized?

5' to 3'

Which protein is responsible for binding to the single-stranded DNA created by DNA helicase during DNA replication?

Single-stranded binding (SSB) proteins

Which enzyme is responsible for synthesizing a short RNA primer during DNA replication?

Primase

Which type of DNA repair process is used to correct DNA mutations caused by errors during DNA replication?

Mismatch repair

Which enzyme is responsible for removing RNA primers and replacing them with DNA during DNA replication?

DNA polymerase I

Which repair pathway requires sister chromatids and occurs during S and G2 phase?

Homologous Recombination

Which repair pathway is used by post mitotic cells and cycling cells in G1?

Non-homologous End-Joining

Which repair pathway involves removing altered bases, removing the phosphoribose backbone, filling in the gap, and sealing the strand?

Base Excision Repair

Which repair pathway uses a repair template and requires sister chromatids?

Homologous Recombination

Which repair pathway does not use a repair template and directly ligates broken ends?

Non-homologous End-Joining

Which repair pathway recognizes mis-incorporated bases, removes them, and replaces them with the correct bases?

Mismatch repair

Which repair pathway removes incorrect bases with a few surrounding bases and replaces them with the correct bases?

Base Excision Repair

Which repair pathway is responsible for repairing DNA double strand breaks?

Homologous Recombination

Which repair pathway binds to the double stranded break and recruits necessary polymerase and ligase to repair the break?

Non-homologous End-Joining

Which type of DNA mutation involves the substitution of a single base?

Point mutation

Which repair process is responsible for correcting base-pairing errors?

Mismatch repair

Which repair process is used to fix bulky lesions caused by UV radiation?

Nucleotide excision repair

Which repair process involves the removal of RNA primers and their replacement with DNA during DNA replication?

Base excision repair

Which type of DNA mutation involves the addition of extra bases?

Insertion

Which repair process involves the joining of Okazaki fragments in DNA replication?

Double-strand break repair

Which repair process does not use a repair template and directly ligates broken ends?

Double-strand break repair

Which repair process is used to correct DNA mutations caused by exposure to mutagens?

Nucleotide excision repair

Which repair process is used to correct DNA mutations caused by errors during DNA replication?

Mismatch repair

Which repair process involves the alteration of the reading frame in DNA?

Frameshift mutation

Which enzyme is responsible for joining Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand during DNA replication?

DNA ligase

Which nitrogenous base pairs with guanine in DNA?

Cytosine

What is the function of telomeres in eukaryotic chromosomes?

To prevent the loss of genetic material during DNA replication

Which enzyme is responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix during DNA replication?

DNA helicase

What are the three parts of a nucleotide in DNA?

Phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar, and nitrogenous base

Which enzyme synthesizes RNA primers during DNA replication?

Primase

Which nitrogenous base pairs with thymine in DNA?

Adenine

Which enzyme builds new DNA strands during DNA replication?

DNA polymerase

What is the structure of DNA?

Double-stranded helix

Which nitrogenous base pairs with adenine in DNA?

Thymine

Which enzyme is responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix during DNA replication?

Helicase

What is the function of telomeres in eukaryotic chromosomes?

To prevent the loss of genetic information

Which enzyme builds new DNA strands during DNA replication?

DNA polymerase

Which repair pathway involves removing altered bases, removing the phosphoribose backbone, filling in the gap, and sealing the strand?

Base excision repair

During DNA replication, in which direction is the leading strand synthesized?

5'-to-3'

Which nitrogenous base pairs with adenine in DNA?

Thymine

Which type of DNA mutation involves the substitution of a single base?

Point mutation

Which enzyme is responsible for synthesizing a short RNA primer during DNA replication?

Primase

Which repair pathway is responsible for removing incorrect bases with a few surrounding bases and replacing them with the correct bases?

Mismatch repair

What is the primary function of telomerase in DNA replication?

To synthesize the ends of linear chromosomes

Which repair pathway is used to fix larger mutations that distort DNA structure?

Nucleotide excision repair

Which repair pathway is responsible for repairing DNA double strand breaks?

DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)

What is the role of error checking and repair systems in maintaining the integrity of the genome?

To repair DNA damage

Test your knowledge on DNA replication with this informative quiz! Learn about the process of elongation, the directions of growth for the leading and lagging strands, and the role of ligase in joining Okazaki fragments. Don't miss out on understanding the trombone model for lagging strand synthesis as well.

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