## Questions and Answers

What is the primary focus of the study of logic?

Which of the following is NOT a form of reasoning studied in logic?

What is a proposition in logic?

In deductive logic, if all the premises are true, what can be said about the conclusion?

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What is the primary difference between deductive and inductive logic?

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Which of the following statements about deductive logic is true?

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What type of reasoning involves moving from specifics to generals?

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Which type of fallacy involves affirming the consequent?

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What distinguishes formal fallacies from informal fallacies?

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Which statement describes circular reasoning?

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What is a common example of denying the antecedent?

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Why might concluding that turning on a light switch causes the light to come on be considered a weak form of reasoning?

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## Study Notes

## Logic

Logic is a branch of philosophy concerned with classes of correct reasoning. In analytic philosophy, logic is studied within mathematics, linguistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, epidemiology, philosophy, and psychology. Logicians study various forms of reasoning through propositions, theorems, lemmas, corollaries, definitions, and proofs.

## Definitions

In technical uses, a proposition is a declarative statement that may be true or false. A formula is a string of characters that describes something in a mathematical sense. In mathematics, it's a symbol representing a quantity, object, or abstract idea, along with rules explaining how the symbol is manipulated. In logic, a theorem is a statement that has been proven about a mathematical system.

## Deductive and Inductive Logic

Deductive logic is a form of reasoning where conclusions follow directly from premises. If all the premises are true, then any conclusion derived from them must also be true. For example, if we know that all humans eat food and John is human, we can deduce that John eats food. Deductive logic is valid if its premises are true, and sound if they are both true and relevant to the conclusion.

Inductive logic, on the other hand, is based on observations. It starts with specific instances or data points and tries to draw general conclusions about classes or categories of things. For instance, if 100% of the time you turn on a light switch, the light comes on, you might conclude that turning on the switch causes the light to come on. This type of reasoning isn't guaranteed to be correct, but it can make the conclusion more likely. An example of strong induction would be witnessing a long series of sunrises without exception.

## Fallacies

Fallacies are errors in reasoning that make arguments invalid. They come in two main types: formal and informal. Formal fallacies involve issues with the structure of logical arguments, while informal fallacies stem from context or content. Examples of common fallacies include affirming the consequent ("If it's going to rain, I'll bring my umbrella. I didn't bring my umbrella, therefore, it wasn't going to rain"), denying the antecedent ("If it's going to rain, I'll stay inside. It's not going to rain, so I can go outside"), and circular reasoning ("God exists because the Bible says so, and the Bible is true because God wrote it").

In summary, logic includes various forms of reasoning such as deductive and inductive. While deduction moves from generals to specifics, induction goes the other way around. Logical fallacies occur when arguments fail to meet certain standards or contain illogical elements.

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## Description

Test your knowledge on logic, deductive and inductive reasoning, fallacies, and key concepts in analytic philosophy. Explore how proposition, formula, theorem, and valid arguments play a role in different areas such as mathematics, linguistics, and computer science.